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The Laws of Islam

Las leyes del Islam (The laws of Islam) was published in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1926. The book’s author, Constantino Melhem, a native Arabic speaker and a non-Muslim, sets himself the goal of translating directly from the Arabic and organizing and commenting on the body of Islamic law. His objective, as stated in the preface, is to explain to a Western audience the massive body of laws and rules governing Muslim life and to correct what he regards as misconceptions about the Muslim way of life that have resulted ...

Contributed by Library of Congress Maymunlar cehennemi 3

On Islamic Law

On Islamic Law

Josef Kohler (1849–1919) was a German jurist noted for his contribution to the philosophy of law and the advancement of the study of the comparative history of law. He was born in Offenburg, Baden, and educated at the universities of Freiburg and Heidelberg. Kohler was a judge in Mannheim and a law professor at the University of Berlin. This booklet, entitled Zum Islamrecht (On Islamic law), is a commentary by Kohler on Muhammedanisches Recht nach schafiitischer Lehre (Muhammedan law according to the Shafi’i school), a translation from Arabic ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Islam and Race

Islam and Race

Pierre Jean Daniel André was a French military officer who studied Oriental languages in Paris before serving with the French Colonial Infantry in a number of parts of the French Empire, including Algeria and Morocco, and at posts along the African and Arabian coasts of the Indian Ocean. In 1919‒20 André was governor of the sanjak (administrative district) of Djebel-i-Bereket in Cilicia, a region of southeastern Turkey that had been placed under French administration following the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I. Based on his experiences ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Pan-Islam

Pan-Islam

George Wyman Bury (1874‒1920) was a British naturalist and explorer who spent 25 years in different parts of the Arab world, including Morocco, Aden, Somalia, and Egypt. He wrote several books, including The Land of Uz about the Arabian Peninsula, which he published in 1911 under the pseudonymAbdullah Mansur, and Arabia infelix, or, The Turks in Yamen, published in 1915. During World War I he served with British intelligence in Egypt, where he was charged with countering Turkish and German pan-Islamist propaganda (and infiltrators) aimed at stirring up ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

A Sketch of the Islamic Law

A Sketch of the Islamic Law

This manuscript work in two volumes was translated and edited by Ma Boliang (1640–1711), an influential Islamic scholar from Jining, Shandong Province. It deals with the basics of Islam and instructs readers on how to identify unorthodox ideas and deeds. To accommodate some readers, Ma also provided Arabic letters for a few of the most important expressions and terms as well as Chinese characters. The work became very popular in the Muslim community, which constituted a large minority population in China. It has a preface and a postscript, but ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Golden Encyclopedia of Islamic Sciences

The Golden Encyclopedia of Islamic Sciences

Born in Cairo and educated in Egypt, the United States, and Great Britain, Dr. Fatima Mahjoub is a historian, linguist, and author specializing in encyclopedias. Al-mawsoo’a al-thahabiya lil ‘aloom al-Islamiya (The golden encyclopedia of Islamic sciences) is one of three encyclopedias she has written. Organized according to the Arabic alphabet and published in nine volumes, the work covers nine branches or fields of Islamic scholarship in religious studies, such as Quran exegesis, Islamic doctrine, and Islamic jurisprudence. The encyclopedia also includes entries on sciences in which Muslim scholars excelled ...

Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Arabia: The Cradle of Islam

Arabia: The Cradle of Islam

Samuel Zwemer (1867–1952) was an American Protestant missionary who lived for nine years in Bahrain and became a student of the Arab world and, especially, the Arabian Peninsula. Published in New York in 1900, Arabia: The Cradle of Islam contains detailed chapters on the geography of Arabia; the holy cities of Mecca and Medina; the Prophet Muhammad and the rise of Islam; the contemporary political scene on the Arabian Peninsula, including the rivalries among the British, Turks, and other powers; and the Arabic language and poetry. The book concludes ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Islamic Civilization in the City of Peace

Islamic Civilization in the City of Peace

Hadharat al-Islam fi Dar al-Salam (Islamic civilization in the city of peace) is a work of historical imagination, written as a straightforward narrative free of stylistic adornments. The city referred to is Baghdad. The book straddles the transition in Arabic literature from baroque, poetic metaphor to a modern, economic prose style. Treatment of the subject is also innovative. Rather than an essay on glories of the Abbasid period (750−1258), the work is presented as the tale of an anonymous Persian traveler writing home about conditions in the largely Persianate ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

History of Islamic Conquests

History of Islamic Conquests

Tarikh-e Futuhat-e Islamiyah (History of Islamic conquests) is a two volume work chronicling Islamichistorical events, particularly wars, battles, and conquests. It is also known as Tawarikh-e Islam (History of Islam) and Futuhat-e nabawai (Conquests of the Prophet). This lithographic copy is a Persian translation from the original Arabic work by Sayyid Ahmad ibn Sayyid Zayni Dahlan (1816 or 1817−86), an eminent scholar of Mecca and Medina. The translation was a collective effort by “scholars of Herat . . . for an Afghan audience to know about the history of Islam.” It ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

On the Religion of Pre-Islamic Arabs

On the Religion of Pre-Islamic Arabs

Ludolf Krehl (1825‒1901) was a German Orientalist and librarian. He was born in Meissen, Saxony, and studied oriental languages at the universities of Leipzig, Tübingen, and Paris. Shown here is the first edition (1863) of Krehl’s Über die Religion der vorislamischen Araber (On the religion of the pre-IslamicArabs), a treatise investigating the belief systems of the Arabs before the advent of Islam. Krehl states in the introduction that the book is an attempt to “explain and substantiate the inner context of some of the most salient phenomena ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Administration of Justice in Islam

Administration of Justice in Islam

Al-Qaḍāʼ fī al-Islām (Administration of justice in Islam) contains the text of a lecture by judge, social reformer, and Arab nationalist ʻArif al-Nakadi (1887‒1975). The lecture was delivered on July 29, 1921, to the club of the Arab Academy of Damascus, of which al-Nakadi was a member. It discusses the qada(administration of justice) in Islam, focusing on the development of the judicial process throughout Islamichistory, including the development of legal opinion and the emergence of the various schools of jurisprudence. Al-Nakadi presents his arguments in terms of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Book of the Table for the Calculation of the Islamic and Christian Years

The Book of the Table for the Calculation of the Islamic and Christian Years

The correct reckoning of time has been the object of study by many Arabic scientists. Its importance in Islam has to do with the proper calculation of the length of days, months, and years necessary for the performance of the five daily prayers and for the celebration of festivals at the correct hours, days, and months of the lunar year. This 19th-century copy of a work by Muḥammad ibn ʻAbd al-Laṭīf Thābitī opens with some remarks on the signs of the zodiac, followed by a discussion of the 28 lunar ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Keys to the Heavens: An Explanation of “Islamic Law”

The Keys to the Heavens: An Explanation of “Islamic Law”

Mafâtîh al-Jinân: Šharh Šhir’at al-Islam (The keys to the heavens: An explanation of “Islamic law”) is a commentary on the work Šhir’at al-Islam (Islamic law) by Mohammad ibn Abu Bakr al-Jughi (1098–1177). Al-Jughi was known as Imam Zadeh, a scholar and an imam in Bukhara (present-day Uzbekistan). The commentary, by Ya’kub ibn Sayyid ali al-Burssawi (died circa 1524), is an extensive book that discusses belief, manners, and daily practices in an Islamic framework. The work consists of 61 sections, called books. Special attention is paid ...

Contributed by National Academic Library of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Astana

Two Works on Islamic Beliefs and Practices

Two Works on Islamic Beliefs and Practices

This codex comprises two works on Islamic beliefs and practices by the Ottoman writer Aḥmet bin Muḥammed Şemsī Pāşā, who died in 990 AH (1580 AD). These works are entitled Tercümet ül-Viḳāye(The translation of “Wiqāyat al-Riwāyah”) and I’tiḳādiyāt (Beliefs), as inscribed in the headings on folios 2b and 29b, respectively. Both texts were copied in black Nasta’līq script in the 10th century AH (16th century AD). On folio 2a is a note of approval by the famous Ottoman jurist Abū al-Su’ūd (Ebussuud) Efendi (died 982 AH ...

Contributed by Walters Art Museum

Classical Islamic Education Institutions in Hindustan

Classical Islamic Education Institutions in Hindustan

This work covers the history of madrasah education in India, from its earliest foundations under Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi (979–1030), a patron of learning who ruled over an extensive empire that included most of present-day Afghanistan, eastern Iran, Pakistan, and northwestern India. Madrasahs, or Islamicreligious schools, became widespread after the beginning of the Delhi sultanate in 1206, making them among the oldest active institutions in India. The early madrasahs were centers of learning, which educated the sons of rulers and personnel for government administration. When Muslim rule declined with ...

Contributed by Government College University Lahore

Tajik Wedding Rituals. Islamic Wedding Ceremony

Tajik Wedding Rituals. Islamic Wedding Ceremony

This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Albuma comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Thirty-two Years with Islam (1832-1864)

Thirty-two Years with Islam (1832-1864)

Trente-deux ans a travers l'Islam (1832-1864) (Thirty-two years with Islam [1832-1864]) is a memoir by French soldier and diplomat Léon Roches (1809−1901), covering his career in North Africa and other parts of the Middle East, including a brief sojourn in Mecca. It is based on his diary and on correspondence that he reviewed following his retirement from government service. Beginning with his first arrival in French Algeria in 1832, the author recounts his diplomatic and military assignments in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, and Arabia. His mastery of Arabic ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

Untitled Outline in Verse of Islamic Obligations

Untitled Outline in Verse of Islamic Obligations

This untitled Arabic manuscript is an urjūza (versification) of Muqaddimat Ibn Rushd (Ibn Rushd’s introduction). It is a work on Mālikī Islamic jurisprudence by Ibn Rushd al-Jadd (the grandfather), otherwise known as Abū al-Walīd Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad (circa 1058−circa 1126), not to be confused with his famous grandson, the philosopher Abu al-Walid Ibn Rushd (1126−98). This versification, commonly known as Naẓm muqaddimat Ibn Rushd (The versification of Ibn Rushd’s introduction), is ascribed to ʻAbd al-Rahman ibn ʻAlī al-Ruqʿī al-Fāsī (died in Fez, in present-day Morocco, circa ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of Egypt

The Birthplace of Islam: Western Arabia on the Eve of the Hegira

The Birthplace of Islam: Western Arabia on the Eve of the Hegira

Le berceau de l'Islam: l'Arabie occidentale à la veille de l'hégire (The cradle of Islam: Western Arabia on the eve of the hegira) is an environmental and social history of the Hejaz region of the western Arabian Peninsula, the area which the author, Henri Lammens (1862‒1937), calls the “cradle of Islam.” The book is a study of the climate, geography, topography, and anthropology of the region at the beginning of the seventh century, rigorously based on the Arabic textual sources that are the principal bases of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Preaching of Islam: A History of the Propagation of the Muslim Faith

The Preaching of Islam: A History of the Propagation of the Muslim Faith

The Preaching of Islam: A History of the Propagation of the Muslim Faith is an important early work by the British Orientalist and historian of Islamic art Sir Thomas Walker Arnold (1864–1930). Arnold was born in Devonport, Devon, England, and graduated from Magdalene College, Cambridge. In 1888 he moved to British India, where he taught philosophy at the Mohammedan Anglo-Oriental College (present-day Aligarh Muslim University). It was there that he began to form strong bonds with Indian Muslim reformists such as Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan and Shibli Numani. Arnold ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Code of “Ḥubūs” (or “Waqf”) According to Islamic Law

The Code of “Ḥubūs” (or “Waqf”) According to Islamic Law

The author of this work on hubus,or hobous, the North African equivalent of the Arabic waqf(endowment), Ernest Mercier (1840‒1907), was for some years the mayor of Constantine, a city in northeast Algeria, then a French colony. Mercier also wrote several other works on North African subjects. The book, which is in French, first defines the Muslim obligation of charitable and pious endowment, its origins, and its legal status. It describes the rules, the essential religious or humanitarian purpose of waqf, designation of beneficiaries, management of the endowment ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Moslems Worshipping the Shrines Sacred to Islam, Mecca, Arabia

Moslems Worshipping the Shrines Sacred to Islam, Mecca, Arabia

This photograph of a scene in Mecca, present-day Saudi Arabia, is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Commentary on “The Chosen One in Edicts” in Hanafi Islamic Jurisprudence

Commentary on “The Chosen One in Edicts” in Hanafi Islamic Jurisprudence

This manuscript copy is a commentary on al-Mukhtār lil-fatwá (The chosen one in edicts), one of four authoritative works in Hanafi Islamic jurisprudence. Both the original work and the commentary are by ʻAbd Allah ibn Mahmud al-Mawsili (1202 or 1203−84), also known as al-Buldahi or Ibn Mawdud. A one-page introductory note traces his teachers from Mawsil (Mosul, present-day Iraq), where he was born, to Damascus, Baghdad, and as far east as Nishabur (Neyshabur or Nishapur, present-day Iran), where one of the luminaries whose approval he sought was a female ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Arabia and the Qur’an. (The Origin and Nature of Islam). A Historical Study

Arabia and the Qur’an. (The Origin and Nature of Islam). A Historical Study

This book is a study of Arabia, the Qur’an, and Islam by Russian scholar Nikolaĭ Petrovich Ostroumov (1846‒1930). The main text is preceded by Ostroumov’s recollections of his experiences in the 1860s and 1870s as a student at the counter-Muslim department of the Kazan Seminary, where he studied Tartar and Arabic languages and Muslim culture. At the time, the government of the Kazan region, which was populated by Tartars and other Muslim ethnic groups, allowed the teaching of the Tartar language in schools to baptized Tartars and ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Book of the Table Regarding the Knowledge of the Time and the Heavens for the Calculation of the Beginning of the Islamic and Christian Months

The Book of the Table Regarding the Knowledge of the Time and the Heavens for the Calculation of the Beginning of the Islamic and Christian Months

Because of the religious obligation to perform canonical prayers at set times of the day and the sanctity attributed to particular times of the year, such as the month of Ramaḍān, Muslim scientists have studied questions relating to the calendar and the reckoning of time almost since the beginning of Islam. The present manuscript presents tables for the comparison of the Hijrī and Christian years. Little is known of the author of these tables, al-Ḥusayn ibn Zayd ibn ‘Alī ibn Jaḥḥāf, beyond a marginal note, which states that Ibn Jaḥḥāf ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Approximate Distribution of the Rites or Schools of Law and Religious Sects of Islam in Arabia

Approximate Distribution of the Rites or Schools of Law and Religious Sects of Islam in Arabia

This map illustrates the varieties of religious affiliation in the Muslim populations of the Middle East. It shows the locations of adherents to the four schools of Sunni jurisprudence and the distribution of Shia populations. Where it is impossible to portray this diversity visually, the sheet provides a few paragraphs of further explanation, such as on the Senussi order in Medina, the Maliki school of Islamic law in Syria, and the Hanafi school as the official law of the Ottoman provinces. The map is rich in detail, and shows a ...

Contributed by University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries

Mosque in Hami’s Muslim District, Showing the Juxtaposition of Chinese Roof and Islamic Dome. Xinjiang, China, 1875

Mosque in Hami’s Muslim District, Showing the Juxtaposition of Chinese Roof and Islamic Dome. Xinjiang, China, 1875

In 1874-75, the Russian government sent a research and trading mission to China to seek out new overland routes to the Chinese market, report on prospects for increased commerce and locations for consulates and factories, and gather information about the Dungan Revolt then raging in parts of western China. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Iulian A. Sosnovskii of the army General Staff, the nine-man mission included a topographer, Captain Matusovskii; a scientific officer, Dr. Pavel Iakovlevich Piasetskii; Chinese and Russian interpreters; three non-commissioned Cossack soldiers; and the mission photographer, Adolf Erazmovich ...

Contributed by National Library of Brazil

“Minhāj al-ṭālibīn.” The Zealous Believers’ Guide. A Manual of Islamic Jurisprudence According to the Shafiʻi Rite

“Minhāj al-ṭālibīn.” The Zealous Believers’ Guide. A Manual of Islamic Jurisprudence According to the Shafiʻi Rite

Islam was known in Indonesia from the eighth century, but it appears to have taken hold in the 13th century, first in Sumatra and then across the archipelago. During the Dutch colonial period, civil servant L.W.C. Van den Berg (1845‒1927), who was known as a scholar of indigenous languages and advisor on Islamic law, proposed that Islamic law should be binding upon the indigenous Muslims of Indonesia. In support of that end, he translated into French Minhāj al-ṭālibīn by Imam al-Nawawi (1233‒77), a highly influential manual ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Mohammedan History

Mohammedan History

In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Mohammedan History is Number 57 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published in 1920, after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Part I of the book is an overview of the history of Islam from the time of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Encyclopedia of the Fourteenth Century A.H., Twentieth Century A.D.: A Reference for the Arabic Language and the Universal Sciences

Encyclopedia of the Fourteenth Century A.H., Twentieth Century A.D.: A Reference for the Arabic Language and the Universal Sciences

This ten-volume encyclopedia is an effort to reconcile Islamic belief with the scientific and intellectual currents of the West early in the 20th century. Entirely the work of one man, Muhammad Farid Wajdi, or Wadjdi (1875−1954)‏, it is arranged in the same way as European reference works, i.e., alphabetically, with long essays on important topics. In each of these, the author argues that the Qurʼan and the prophetic traditions of Islam are predictive of or compatible with modern science and rational (but not materialistic) philosophies. The encyclopedia was ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

Thesis on the Mirror of the Hearts

Thesis on the Mirror of the Hearts

Khodzha Akhmed Iassavi (died 1166) was a philosopher, Sufi mystic, and the earliest known poet to write in a Turkic dialect. He was born in the city of Isfijab (present-day Sayram, in Kazakhstan) but lived most of his life in Turkestan (also in southern Kazakhstan). He was a student of Arslan Baba, a well-known preacher of Islam. At a time when Farsi dominated literature and public life, Iassavi wrote in his native Old Turkic (Chagatai) language. He was known during his lifetime as a holy person and people from all ...

Contributed by National Library of Kazakhstan

A Reminder to the Incognizant on the Ugliness of Discord Among the Faithful

A Reminder to the Incognizant on the Ugliness of Discord Among the Faithful

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. Kitāb Tadhkirat al-Ghāfilīn ‘an Qubḥi Ikhtilāf al-Mu’minīn – aw al-nuṣaḥ al-mubīn ‘an qubḥi ikhtilāf al-mu’minīn ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

Molla Sadra’s Miscellany

Molla Sadra’s Miscellany

Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm Ṣadr al-Dīn Shīrāzī (1571–1640), commonly known as Molla Sadra, was a Persian Islamic philosopher, theologian, and mystic who led the Iranian cultural renaissance in the 17th century. The foremost exemplar of the Illuminationist, or Eshraqi, school of philosopher-mystics, Molla Sadra is commonly regarded by Iranians as the greatest philosopher that Iran has produced and is arguably the single most important and influential philosopher in the Muslim world of the last four centuries. His school of philosophy is called Transcendent Theosophy. Molla Sadra's philosophy and ontology ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of the Islamic Republic of Iran

Poetic Rendition of the “Treatise of Birgili Mehmet”

Poetic Rendition of the “Treatise of Birgili Mehmet”

This manuscript in Ottoman Turkish conveys the meaning in rhymed couplets of the treatise on the fundamentals of Islamic belief by Birgili Mehmet Efendi (also seen as Birgivi Mehmed). At first glance a simple catechism, a companion to Birgili’s longer Tariqat-i Muhammadiyah (The way of Muhammad), the treatise helped lay the foundations for a lasting intellectual movement, which is seen manifested today in Islamic reformism, generally termed salafism, and even in more extremist and violent ideologies. A former Sufi himself, Birgili came to believe that Sufis had strayed far ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Comprehensive Elucidation of the Interpretation of the Qurʼan

The Comprehensive Elucidation of the Interpretation of the Qurʼan

This is the earliest printed edition of Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari’s seminal commentary on the Qurʼan, known as Tafsīr al-Ṭabarī (The exegesis of al-Tabari). The text in 30 volumes is accompanied in the margins by Gara’ib al-Qurʼan wa-ragha’ib al-Furqan (Desired evidence of the Qurʼan’s excellence), a commentary by medieval Persian astronomer and exegete Nizam al-Din al-Nisaburi. Scholars agree that the importance of Tafsīr al-Ṭabarī lies first of all in al-Tabari’s painstaking transmission of early commentaries and methodological approaches to scriptural interpretation that are now lost ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

Rules for Governing

Rules for Governing

Al-aḥkām al-sulṭānīyah (Rules for governing), by Abu al-Hasan al-Mawardi (died 1058), is known as the earliest comprehensive work on governing the Islamic state. It combines theoretical reflections on the nature of the state and the qualifications of the caliph and his officials with practical guidance on the application of legal principles for judges. The influence of Al-aḥkām al-sulṭānīyah has varied over the years. In his English translation, scholar Asadullah Yate treats the work as of antiquarian interest, stating that it “affords insights into aspects of the deen (religion) that have ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Exhaustive Opinion on Unorthodox and Successive Divorces

The Exhaustive Opinion on Unorthodox and Successive Divorces

Al-Qawl al-jāmiʻ fī al-ṭalāq (The exhaustive opinion on unorthodox and successive divorces) is a counter-treatise on ṭalaq (divorce) in Islamic jurisprudence by Egyptian jurist Muhammad Bakhit al-Mutiʻi (1856‒1935), a scholar who taught at al-Azhar in Cairo. It is a response to an unnamed “writer of the treatise on divorce in Islam published in al-Muayyid newspaper, issue 3664, on Saturday, 16 Safar, 1320 [May 24, 1902].” Al-Mutiʻi harshly criticizes the unnamed writer for having “encroached upon Islamic sharia” and “waded into a question that both early and contemporary scholars have ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Art of the Administration of Justice

The Art of the Administration of Justice

Fann al-qadāʼ (The art of the administration of justice) comprises two works. The first is a translation into Arabic of Essai sur l'art de juger (Essay on the art of the administration of justice), a 1912 work by Georges Ransson (born 1856), a French judge who is identified as having worked “in the Seine Court.” The translation is by Muhammad Rushdi, a former judge of the Egyptian court of appeals. The second work, Ādāb al-qāḍī fī al-sharīʻah al-Islāmīyah (Moral conventions of judges in Islamic sharia), is a collection ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Mahomedan Law of Inheritance According to the School of Shafii

The Mahomedan Law of Inheritance According to the School of Shafii

The Mahomedan Law of Inheritance According to the School of Shafii is a treatise on the laws of inheritance according to the Shafiʻi School of Sunni Islamic jurisprudence. The author, Charles Herbert Withers Payne, was advocate and solicitor of the Supreme Court of the Straits Settlements (present-day Malaysia and Singapore). The book, he wrote, was meant to “clear some of the complexity with which this subject is enshrouded” and assist “those who have occasion to deal with problems arising therefrom.” This short book is comprised of a general introduction on ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Gift of the Followers of the Path of Muhammad

The Gift of the Followers of the Path of Muhammad 

Timbuktu, founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries of Timbuktu contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. This work is about the Songhai Empire, one of the most important states in West Africa during the 14th and 15th centuries ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

A Guide for the Good

A Guide for the Good 

This Muslim prayer book is a 1785 copy of an original 15th-century manuscript. The work includes a panorama of Mecca and Medina, the holy cities of Islam in Saudi Arabia. Mecca, where the Prophet Muhammad was born and lived for the first 50 years of his life, is the most sacred city in Islam. It is also where the Ka`bah is found, the holiest sanctuary in Islam and called the "house of God" (Bayt Allah). Muslims throughout the world pray facing in the direction of Mecca and the Ka ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Ladder of Ascent in Obtaining the Procurements of the Sudan: Ahmad Baba Answers a Moroccan’s Questions about Slavery

The Ladder of Ascent in Obtaining the Procurements of the Sudan: Ahmad Baba Answers a Moroccan’s Questions about Slavery

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. Ahmad Baba ibn Ahmad ibn Umar ibn Muhammad Aqit al-Tumbukti discusses slavery as it existed in West Africa during ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

The Luminous Treasure with Acceptable Answers to Matters of Faith

The Luminous Treasure with Acceptable Answers to Matters of Faith

Aḥmad ibn ʻAbd al-Laṭīf ibn Aḥmad al-Bashbīshī (1631–85) was an Islamic jurist of the Shāfiʻī school of jurisprudence. He was born and died in the village of Bashbīsh in the region of Al-Mahalla in the Nile delta of Egypt. He studied Islamic jurisprudence in Cairo and taught at the Cairo-based Al-Azhar Mosque, long considered the foremost institution in the Islamic world for the study of Sunni theology. Al-Tuhfa al-Saniyya bi Ajwibat al-Masaa’il al-Mardhiyya (The luminous treasure with acceptable answers to matters of faith) is a collection of writings ...

Contributed by King Abdulaziz University Library

Book of Taxation

Book of Taxation

Kitāb al-Kharāj (Book of taxation)is a classic text on fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), written by Abū Yusūf Yaʿqūb Ibrāhīm al-Anṣārī al-Kūfī (died 798; 182 A.H.) at the request of the Abbasid caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd (763 or 766-809). Abū Yusūf was the most famous student of Abū Ḥanīfa and along with his illustrious teacher is considered one of the founders of the Ḥanafī school of law. In the introduction to the book, Abū Yusūf describes how the caliph asked him to write a work treating the collection of al-kharāj(the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Treasure of Exactitudes: On the Doctrine of the Great Imam Abu Hanifah al-Nuʿman Ibn Thabit

The Treasure of Exactitudes: On the Doctrine of the Great Imam Abu Hanifah al-Nuʿman Ibn Thabit

Kanz al-daqāʼiq (The treasure of exactitudes) is a summary of Islamic legal prescriptions according to the Hanifite school of sharia law. It covers many aspects of ritual and of personal life, such as purity during menstruation, as well as obligations and procedures pertaining to marriage, divorce, inheritance and other aspects of gender relations. The work also covers commercial transactions, contracts, and manumission of slaves. The table of contents is in matrix form for easy reference to the book’s many subjects. It is not clear whether the author, al-Nasafi (died ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Ideal Way to Shed Traditions and Embrace First Principles

The Ideal Way to Shed Traditions and Embrace First Principles

This printed work by Nūr al-Ḥasan b. Ṣiddīq b. Ḥasan Khan (also seen as al-Qannawjī) deals with taqlid(adherence to Islamic tradition) and ijthad (flexible interpretation of religious principles), issues that have occupied Muslim thinkers for 1,400 years. Al-Ṭarīqah al-muthlá fī al-irshād ilá tark al-taqlīd wa-ittibāʻ mā huwa al-awlá (The ideal way to shed traditions and embrace first principles) is in itself less important than the context in which it was published. The author was from the Muslim court of Bhopal in India. He was the son of a ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

Commentary on “Madārij al-Kamāl”

Commentary on “Madārij al-Kamāl”

ʻAbd Allāh ibn Ḥumayyid al-Sālimī (circa 1869–circa 1914) was a leading Omani Ibadite (also seen as Ibadhite and Ibadi) scholar and poet, who was born in the town of Al-Ḥoqain in the Rustāq region of the interior of Oman. Ibadism is an Islamic denomination that traces its roots to the seventh century, at the time of the Sunni−Shiite schism. It is named after Abdullāh ibn Ibāḍ, one of the founding scholars of the doctrine. Today’s adherents of Ibadism are found primarily in Oman, in addition to other ...

Contributed by Sultan Qaboos University Library

A Study of the Carmatians of Bahrain and the Fatimids

A Study of the Carmatians of Bahrain and the Fatimids

Mémoire sur les Carmathes du Bahraïn et les Fatimides (A study of the Carmatians of Bahrain and the Fatimids) is a history of two Shia political and theological movements that shook the Islamic world between the ninth and 12th centuries. Both the Carmatians (also seen as Qarmatians or Karmathians) and Fatimids were offshoots of mainstream Shia Islam. While each looked to the descendants of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (died 661) for spiritual and temporal leadership, they differed over the line of descent to be followed. The Carmatians established their power ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

A Treatise on the Muhammedan Law, Entitled, “The Overflowing River of the Science of Inheritance and Patrimony,” Together with an Exposition of the “The Rights of Women, and the Laws of Matrimony”

A Treatise on the Muhammedan Law, Entitled, “The Overflowing River of the Science of Inheritance and Patrimony,” Together with an Exposition of the “The Rights of Women, and the Laws of Matrimony”

A Treatise on the Muhammedan Law contains two works, Al-Nahr al-fa’id fi ‘ilm al-fara’id (The overflowing river of the science of inheritance and patrimony), and Al-Idah fi huquq al-nisa’ wa ahkam al-nikah (The rights of women, and the laws of matrimony). Written in English and Arabic, it is a textbook on Islamic law for judges and attorneys in the courts of Aden. The strategically important territory of Aden in the Arabian Peninsula became a British possession in 1839. The population was ethnically mixed, with Muslim Arabs predominating ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Treatises on Religious Endowments

Treatises on Religious Endowments

Rasāʼil fī al-waqf (Treatises on religious endowments) is a collection of seven articles addressing different aspects of waqf (Islamic religious endowments) in early 20th century Egypt. The articles originally were published in al-Muqattam newspaper between January 1902 and November 1906. The author, ʻAziiz KhankīBey (1873‒1956), was an Egyptian lawyer and historian of Syrian and Armenian descent. He studied law at the Madrasat al-huquq (The Law School, since 1925 a part of Cairo University), and Islamic jurisprudence at al-Azhar, also in Cairo. He was part of the intellectual circle ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Rules of Inheritance

Rules of Inheritance

Aḥkām al-mawārīth (Rules of inheritance) is a textbook on Islamic law regulating the inheritance of money and property. The book’s author, Muhammad Muhyi al-Din ‘Abd al-Hamid (died 1972), was a lecturer at al-Azhar in Cairo and the Higher Academy of Law in Khartoum, Sudan, and a widely published scholar in Islamic heritage subjects. In his introduction ‘Abd al-Hamid explains that the foundations of the laws of inheritance are, first, the Qur’an, next the hadiths of the Prophet Muhammad, and third the determination of jurists. In Islamic law, ‘ilm ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Manual for Mohammedan Law

Manual for Mohammedan Law

Handboek voor het Mohammedaansch regt (Handbook of Mohammedan law) is a guide in Dutch to Islamic law by Salomo Keijzer (or Keyzer, 1823‒68), doctor of humanities and law, and teacher in the humanities and social sciences of Netherlands India (i.e., the Dutch East Indies, or present-day Indonesia) at the Royal Academy in Delft. The book includes an introduction on the origins and sources of Islamic law, followed by in-depth chapters on such topics as purification, prayer, fasting, pilgrimage, commerce, marriage, crimes against persons, and testimonies and evidence. Important ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

A Summary Explanation of the Pronouncements of the Scholars and Theologians

A Summary Explanation of the Pronouncements of the Scholars and Theologians 

Timbuktu, founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries of Timbuktu contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. In this work, the author examines theologians' and scholars' approaches to various issues in Islamic law and society and offers an explanation ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

Askiyah's Questions and al-Maghili's Answers [al-Maghili's Tract on Politics]

Askiyah's Questions and al-Maghili's Answers [al-Maghili's Tract on Politics] 

Timbuktu, founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries of Timbuktu contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. This treatise is about the Songhai Empire, which flourished in West Africa during the 14th and 15th centuries. It consists of the ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

Letter to the Warring Tribes

Letter to the Warring Tribes 

Timbuktu, founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries of Timbuktu contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. In this work, the author, a scholar and religious leader, urges warring factions to make peace and live in peace. He supports ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

On Explaining the Wiqaya Book

On Explaining the Wiqaya Book

This book by Ubaydullah ibni Masood Taj ush-Shari’a (also known as Taj ush-Shari’a the younger, died 1346 [747 AH]) was written to explain an earlier work by the author’s grandfather and mentor, Mahmoud ibni Sadr ash-Shari’a (the elder), the monumental Wiqayat ar-Riwaya min Masa’il al-Hidaya (The trusted narrative on issues of guidance), which is often shortened to al-Wiqaya (Book). Both works are about Islamicfiqh (jurisprudence) in the Hanafi school of thought. The work was transcribed by Hassan b. Mahmood in 1588 (996 AH). The ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

Bal'ami's Persian Translation of al-Ṭabarī's

This fragment contains the beginning pages of the historical encyclopedia Ta'rikh al-Rusul wa-al-Muluk(History of prophets and kings) composed in Arabic by the celebrated historian al-Tabari (circa 223–310 AH/circa 838–923), later abridged and translated into Persian in 963 by the writer Bal'ami. The verso of the fragment continues the first two pages and includes a later note identifying the work as tawarikh-i Tabari-yi farsi (Histories of Tabari in Persian). The work includes a history of kings and dynasties from pre-Islamic times to the prophecy of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Revival of Religious Sciences, Volumes 1 and 2

The Revival of Religious Sciences, Volumes 1 and 2

Abu-Hamid Al-Ghazali (also known by the Latinized version of his name, Algazel, 1058–1111 AD, 450–505 AH) was born to a modest family in Tus, Khorasan, in present-day Iran. He went on to become one of the most prominent Sunni religious scholars of all time. His main fields of scholarship were jurisprudence, philosophy, theology, and mysticism. Iḥyāʾ ʿulūm al-dīn (The revival of religious sciences) is arguably Al-Ghazali’s major work. It is divided into four quarters, each of which is further divided into ten books. The first quarter covers ...

Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Poem

Poem

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. In Qasīdah (Poem), Sayyid al-Mukhtār ibn Aḥmad ibn Abī Bakr al-Kuntī al-Kabīr instructs students of Islamic law about ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

Commentary on the Work “Examples of Legal Hypotheses”

Commentary on the Work “Examples of Legal Hypotheses”

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. Islamic inheritance law is a highly regulated system in which individuals receive legacies depending upon their degree of relationship ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

The Beautiful Jewels for Edification in the Pillars of the Faith

The Beautiful Jewels for Edification in the Pillars of the Faith

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. The Pillars of Iman, the fundamental principles of the Islamic faith, are presented in this book.Al-Jawāhir al-Ḥisan ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

The Response of Ahmad al-Bakayi to the Letter of Amir Ahmad, Ruler of Massinah

The Response of Ahmad al-Bakayi to the Letter of Amir Ahmad, Ruler of Massinah

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. This document is a reply to the ruler of Massinah (present-day Macina), Amir Ahmad, who ordered the arrest of ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

The Response of Ahmad al-Bakayi to the Letter of Amir Ahmad, Ruler of Massinah

The Response of Ahmad al-Bakayi to the Letter of Amir Ahmad, Ruler of Massinah

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. This document is a reply to the ruler of Massinah (present-day Macina), Amir Ahmad, who ordered the arrest of ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

The Authoritative Source for Religious Scholars

The Authoritative Source for Religious Scholars

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. Kitāb ‘Umdat al-‘Ulamā’ (The authoritative source for religious scholars) argues for the primacy of the ulama (Islamic scholars ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

Holy Qurʼan

Holy Qurʼan

According to Islamic belief, the Holy Qurʼan was revealed by God to the Prophet Mohammad (570–632) by the Angel Gabriel over a period of 22 years. The Qurʼan speaks in powerful, moving language about the reality and attributes of God, the spiritual world, God's purposes with mankind, man's relationship and responsibility to God, the coming of the Day of Judgment, and the life hereafter. It also contains rules for living, stories of earlier prophets and their communities, and vital insights and understandings concerning the meaning of existence ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of the Islamic Republic of Iran

Biographies of the Saints

Biographies of the Saints

This 16th century manuscript in Ottoman Turkish is a translation from the original Persian. The author is the famous mystic Farid al-Din al-‘Attar, best known for his Mantiq al-tayr (Conference of the birds), a mystical allegory written in verse. Shown here is Attar’s only known prose work. Widely admired for its hagiological content and literary style, it contains the biographies of 70 saints in the Islamic mystical tradition. Although the work is technically a collection of biographies, it interweaves fact and legend and adds excursions into the realm ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Collection of Persian Poetry and Prose

Collection of Persian Poetry and Prose

This manuscript in Persian is an untitled Sufi text on meditation containing both poetry and prose. It was completed in early 1520, probably in Herat (present-day Afghanistan) or Mashhad (present-day Iran). The colophon, which is in Arabic, gives the name of the scribe, Mīr 'Alī Ḥusaynī Haravī (circa 1476−1543). The manuscript is on a firm cream-colored paper inlaid into light cream (folios 1−8) or pale greenish-blue margin paper, with the writing enclosed within alternating gold and cream (or green) bands with black ruling. The margin paper is profusely ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

An Offering for Religious Scholars

An Offering for Religious Scholars

Tuḥfat al-ʻulamā’ (An offering for religious scholars) is ostensibly a tract addressed to the ʻulamā’ (religious scholars) of Afghanistan, asking them to actively discourage the suspicion held by their followers toward things foreign. It was written by order of the Afghan ruler Sher Ali Khan (reigned 1863–66 and 1868–79). Little is known of the author, ʻAbd al-Qadir Khan, although he is identified as a qāḍī(judge) indicating his religious authority. ʻAbd al-Qadir uses numerous quotations from the hadith literature to argue that practices originating with “non-believers” may ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Defending the Qurʼan Against Slander

Defending the Qurʼan Against Slander

Tanzīh al-Qurʼān ʻan al-maṭāʻin (Defending the Qurʼan against slander) is a detailed commentary on the Qurʼan from the viewpoint of the early philosophical wing of Islamic speculative theology known as Mu’tazilah, which emphasized the oneness of the Godhead (Allah) and the primacy of human reason in understanding his will. This view gave rise to intense debate, with alternate views expressed by the rationalist Asharites and mystical adepts (Sufis). In Islamic intellectual history, philosophical speculation of this sort is termed ‘ilm al-kalam (science of discourse). As with many such abstract ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

The Clear Guide on the Marriage of the Young

The Clear Guide on the Marriage of the Young

ʻAbd Allāh ibn Ḥumayyid al-Sālimī (circa 1869–circa 1914) was a leading Omani Ibadite (also seen as Ibadhite and Ibadi) scholar and poet, who was born in the town of Al-Ḥoqain in the Rustāq region of the interior of Oman. Ibadism (also seen as Ibadhism) is an Islamic denomination that traces its roots to the seventh century, at the time of the Sunni−Shiite schism. It is named after Abdullāh ibn Ibāḍ, one of the founding scholars of the doctrine. Today’s adherents of Ibadism are found primarily in Oman ...

Contributed by Sultan Qaboos University Library

The Compendium of Faith

The Compendium of Faith

Muḥammad ibn Jaʻfar al-Izkiwī was a leading Muslim scholar who lived in about 900. His name, al-Izkiwī, suggests that he came from Izkī, one of the oldest cities and centers of learning in the interior of Oman. Jāmiʻ al-adyān (The compendium of faith), sometimes referred to simply as al-Jāmiʻ (The compendium) or Jāmiʻ Ibn Jaʻfar (Ibn Jaʻfar’s compendium), is his best-known work. Shown here is an 18th-century manuscript containing the first part of Jāmiʻ al-adyān. As the title suggests, the book summarizes a wide range of topics in Islamic ...

Contributed by Sultan Qaboos University Library

Dismantling the Essences of “The Most Wondrous of Existences”

Dismantling the Essences of “The Most Wondrous of Existences”

This 40-page manuscript, Tahdim al-Arkan min Laysa fi-al-Imkan Abda’ mima Kan (Dismantling the essences of “The most wondrous of existences”), by Ibrāhīm ibn ʻOmar al-Biqāʻī (1406 or 1407−80) concerns a philosophical dispute in the Islamic world over the possibility of the Creator fashioning a more perfect world than the one that exists. This issue had been raised by the renowned philosopher-theologian al-Ghazzali (1058−1111), who answered in the affirmative. In this text, al-Biqāʻī refutes al-Ghazzali, stating that “it is impossible for God’s creation to be more perfect than ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of Egypt

Fatwa on the Millennium

Fatwa on the Millennium

Kashf ‘an mujawazat hadha al-ummah al-alf (Fatwa on the millennium) is a portion of a more comprehensive genealogical work, Lubb al-Lulab fi Tahrir al-Ansab (The essence of constructing genealogies). It treats the Last Days in Sunni eschatology. The fatwa (legal opinion) was stimulated by a question brought to the author, al-Suyuti (1445−1505), regarding the resurrection of the Prophet Muhammad within a thousand years of his death. Al-Suyuti states that many people are interested in the question of the millennium. He dismisses this belief, saying that it ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of Egypt

Shahnameh

Shahnameh

This copy of the Shahnameh (Book of kings) was published by subscription in Bombay in 1906 by the Indian Parsi community. The Shahnameh is a Persian epic poem of more than 50,000 couplets that recounts the pre-Islamic and Sassanid history of Persia and the story of the Islamic conquest. Abu al-Qasim Firdawsi, the author, worked for some 30 years on the Shahnameh, which he presented to his patron, the Turkic-Persianate ruler of Ghaznavid dynasty, Sultan Mahmud, in 1010. This lithographic edition has a table of contents, a prose foreward ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Exposition of Realities Explaining “Treasury of Intricacies”

Exposition of Realities Explaining “Treasury of Intricacies”

This six-volume work of al-shari’ah (Islamic law) is a commentary by ʻUthman ibn ʻAli al-Zaylaʻi (died 1342 or 1343) on a compendium of judgments by ʻAbd Allah ibn Ahmad Al-Nasafi (died 1310), a near contemporary of the author. Islamic legal texts are often accompanied by marginal commentaries and Tabayīn al-ḥaqāʼiq (Exposition of realities) is no exception. The main text by al-Zaylaʻi is accompanied in the margins by a commentary by Shihab al-Din Ahmad al-Shilbi (died 1611 or 1612). The manuscript thus contains al-Zaylaʻi’s commentary Tabayīn al-ḥaqāʼiq on ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

The Most Wondrous of Crafts in Arrangement of Paths

The Most Wondrous of Crafts in Arrangement of Paths

Badāʼiʻ al-ṣanāʼiʻ fī tartīb al-sharāʼiʻ (The most wondrous of crafts in arrangement of paths) by the Hanafi scholar Abu Bakr al-Kasani (died 1191) is a compendium of the judicial principles and practices established by the eighth century jurist Nuʿman ibn Thabit, better known as Abu Hanifa, the founder of the most widespread school of sharia (Islamic law). Al-Kasani is one of a number of medieval fuqaha’(legal authorities) influenced by Abu Hanifa and his early followers. The work covers the fundamental tenets of Islam and the obligations of Muslims. Topics ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

Travel Account of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Nasir al-Darʻi

Travel Account of Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Nasir al-Darʻi

Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Nasir al-Darʻi (1647–1717) was a Moroccan scholar, traveler, and book collector. His Riḥlah (Travel account) describes his pilgrimage to Mecca and the many stops he made along the way. In a straightforward narrative style, he details his route from Morocco along the Mediterranean coast to and from Hijaz. He describes the places he visited and the scholars he encountered. His descriptions of small towns include such topics as the adequacy of their supplies of water and provisions and their agricultural resources. For larger towns and ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Handbook of Mohammedan Law, in the Malaysian Language; Based on the Original

Handbook of Mohammedan Law, in the Malaysian Language; Based on the Original

Handboek van het Mohammedaansche regt, in de Maleische taal; naar oorspronkelijke (Handbook of Mohammedan law, in the Malaysian language; based on the original) is a lengthy text about Islamiclaw, edited by Albert Meursinge (1812‒50), doctor of literature and letters at the Royal Academy in Delft, the Netherlands. The work is written in Malay using Arabic script. The book has a foreword in Dutch by Meursinge, in which he notes the difficulties that Dutch and other European scholars had in understanding the sources and different schools in Islamic law ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Schools of Muhammadan Law on War with the Infidels

Schools of Muhammadan Law on War with the Infidels

This short book, published in Paris in 1829, consists primarily of an extract from a work on the Islamicenjoinment to jihad by Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Quduri (972 or 973‒1037), a Hanafi scholar of fiqh(Islamic jurisprudence), referred to here as Kodouri. The main text is introduced by Charles Solvet, a lawyer and member of the Oriental Society of Paris, who translated it into French from a Latin version translated from the original Arabic by Ernst Friedrich Karl Rosenmüller, a German professor of Oriental Languages at the Leipzig Academy ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Important Stars Among the Multitude of the Heavens

The Important Stars Among the Multitude of the Heavens 

Timbuktu, founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries of Timbuktu contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. This early 18th-century text was written to train scholars in the field of astronomy, a science that Islamic tradition traces back to ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

"ʻAqd-namah" Marriage Decree

This superb document consists of a legally-binding ʻaqd-namah (marriage contract) written in Persia (Iran) in 1219 AH (1804−5). Like other Persian marriage contracts of the 19th century, the document is quite imposing (at almost a meter in height) and its gold work indicative of the couple's wealth. At the top appears a sarloh or sar lawh (illuminated gold heading) containing a number of prayers to God written in red ink on a gold background. On the right of the illuminated sarloh and in the right margin decorated by ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Lesser Compilation of Hadiths of the Consecrated Messenger

The Lesser Compilation of Hadiths of the Consecrated Messenger

This manuscript dating from the late 17th century is a collection of hadiths, or sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, by the Egyptian polymath Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti (1445−1505). The work is carefully written innaskh script. The title is enclosed in a decorative headpiece, not exquisitely drawn but nonetheless colorful yet restrained. In contrast to his comprehensive Jamiʻ al-jawamiʻ  (Compilation of compilations), in this work al-Suyuti promises “the short, abbreviated essence of hadiths and early records, ignoring the shell and taking only the nut.” He accomplished this objective by providing ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

On Substantiation Through Transitive Relations

On Substantiation Through Transitive Relations

This work by the prominent Shafi’i theologian Muhammad al-Amidi (died 1233 [631 AH]) consists of three parts. The first part, on pages 1 and 2, discusses the difference between metaphors and similes in figurative speech. The second part, on pages 3–10, deals with the use of analogies and transitive relations to prove a case. Al-qiyas, or the use of transitive relations to substantiate a case, is one of four pillars in Islamic jurisprudence. It is also widely used by grammarians. The last part, on page 11, is the ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

Free Will and Acts of Faith

Free Will and Acts of Faith

This manuscript is a philosophical-religious work with citations from the Qurʼan. The text of this copy dating from the early 19th century is written in a very small and poor quality Nasta’liq script with black ink on thin yellowish paper. This style of Perso-Arabic script was the predominant style of Persian calligraphy in the 14th and 15th centuries and was very popular with Ottoman calligraphers. The manuscript is bound with ten other works dealing with grammar, rhetoric, and other subjects. It is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

A Brief Essay on the Quadrant Known as Muqantarat

A Brief Essay on the Quadrant Known as Muqantarat

This manuscript on astronomy and surveying describes the sine quadrant and parallel circles. Its author is unknown. The work explains how to measure topographic heights, know prayer times, and determine the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca, toward which Muslims pray. The date of transcription is unknown, but was possibly in the 18th century. The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of IslamicManuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997. Safvet beg Bašagić (1870-1934) was a ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

Glorifications of the Prophetic Traditions

Glorifications of the Prophetic Traditions

This manuscript, written by Ibrāhim bin Mustafā in 1744, is a copy of a work in Arabic by the Afghan scholar Al-Baghawi (1043-1122), written sometime between 1116 and 1122 (510-516 A.H.). It is a summary, in seven chapters, of seven collections of traditions about Muhammad, arranged according to their veracity. The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997. Safvet beg Bašagić (1870-1934) was a Bosnian scholar, poet ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

The Cusp of Prophetic Lights from the Verified Traditions of Muhammad

The Cusp of Prophetic Lights from the Verified Traditions of Muhammad

This Arabic manuscript, dated 1775, is a collection of the sayings of Muhammad by the scholar as-Sagani (died 1252), who was born in India and served as a diplomatic representative of the caliph an-Nasirbillah to India. The traditions are arranged according to grammatical rules. The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997. Safvet beg Bašagić (1870-1934) was a Bosnian scholar, poet, journalist, and museum director who assembled a ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

The Commentary on “The Little Sparkles on the Science of Calculation”

The Commentary on “The Little Sparkles on the Science of Calculation”

The treatise in this manuscript is a commentary on a mathematical treatise by Šihāb al-Dīn Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad Ibn al-Hā’im (circa 1355–1412). Ibn al-Hā’im taught mathematics and Islamic jurisprudence, subjects on which he wrote extensively. The erudite Badr al-Dīn Muhammad Sibt al-Māridīnī (circa 1423–1506), who was at the time working as muwaqqit (timekeeper) at the Al-Azhar mosque in Cairo, composed this short commentary less then 60 years after the death of Ibn al-Hā’im. Following widespread tradition in Islamic lands, Sibt al-Māridīnī included in the title ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Little Sparkles on the Science of Calculation

The Little Sparkles on the Science of Calculation

The treatise preserved in this manuscript, Al-Luma‘al-yasīra fī ‘ilm al-hisāb (The little sparkles on the science of calculation), deals with Muslim inheritance. Of the social innovations that came with the Islamic conquest, the introduction of the system of fara'id (shares) for inheritances was one of the most radical and socially advanced. The fourth surah of the Qurʼan, verses 11–12, criticizes the traditional pre-Islamic system of agnatic succession, under which only men could inherit property, and provides for a proportional division among all the heirs, women included. The ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Tales of the Prophets

Tales of the Prophets

Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyā’ (Tales of the prophets) is the title of the various collections of tales originating in the Qurʼan and embroidered by different authors. Shown here is one of the best known, attributed to Muhammad ibn Abdullah al-Kisa’i, who is thought to have lived in the 11th century AD. The lives of the prophets were not covered in detail in the Qurʼan, so al-Kisa’i and other writers added more elaborate storylines. The Qiṣaṣ begin with God’s creation of the world and descriptions of angels, the cosmos, heaven ...

Contributed by National Academic Library of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Astana

Tughra of Sultan Ahmed III

Tughra of Sultan Ahmed III

This tughra (imperial emblem) belonged to the Ottoman Sultan Ahmed III and appears on the verso of a 16th-century Safavid Persian single-sheet fragment of a Fal-i Qurʼan, used for divination by means of letters selected at random. Ahmed III ruled from A.H. 1115–43 (A.D. 1703–30), so it is probable that the Qurʼan came from southwestern Iran to the Topkapi Palace Library in Istanbul sometime in the 17th century. The largely effaced date of 1111 (1700) on the verso supports the hypothesis that the Qurʼan arrived in ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Mirror Image of 'Ali wali Allah

Mirror Image of 'Ali wali Allah

This 18th-century Ottoman levha (calligraphic panel) depicts the Shi'a phrase “'Ali is the vicegerent of God” in obverse and reverse, creating an exact mirror image. The calligrapher used the central vertical fold in the thick cream-colored paper to trace the exact calligraphic duplication prior to mounting it on cardboard and pasting rectangular pink frames along its borders. Mirror writing flourished during the early modern period, but its origins may stretch as far back as pre-Islamic mirror-image rock inscriptions in the Hijaz, the western strip of the Arabian Peninsula. Engraving ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Qurʼanic Verses (4: 94-100, 100-105)

Qurʼanic Verses (4: 94-100, 100-105)

This fragment contains verses 94–100 of the fourth surah (chapter) of the Qurʼan, al-Nisa' (The women). The surah addresses the social problems faced by the Muslim community and the need to establish law and order through regulated communal practice. It deals largely with women, orphans, inheritance, marriage, and family rights. These particular verses recommend leaving places hostile to Islam and praise believers who keep their faith when abroad. The verso of the fragment includes verses 100–105 from the same surah, which discuss religious duties during periods of war ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This Qurʼanic fragment includes verses 85–88 of the third surah (chapter) of the Qurʼan, Al 'Imran (The family of 'Imran). The verses continue on the fragment’s verso. In this surah, all people are invited to accept Islam, while Muslims are encouraged to seek friendship and security within their communities. Between each horizontal line of Arabic text are diagonal word-by-word translations into Persian. Unlike similar interlinear Qurʼans that include a Persian translation in red ink, this fragment makes no color differentiation between the Arabic original and its Persian rendition ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Hajj Directions

Hajj Directions

This line of text reads: Annahu la yastalim ila al-hajar al-aswad wa-al-rukn al-yamani (He does not permit [it] except [at] the Black Stone and the Yemenite Corner). It appears that this text comprises a fragment of a pilgrimage guide or prescriptive text that states that, during tawaf (ritual circumambulation), touching or kissing the Kaaba only is permitted at the Black Stone and the Yemenite Corner (the southeast corner). Certain prayers and supplications also are particular to those two corners of the Kaaba. The line of text is executed in a ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Commentary on

Commentary on "The Intersections of the Seas", Volume 2

Majma` al-Anhur fī Sharh Multaqā al-Abḥur (Commentary on "The intersections of the seas") is a commentary by 'Abd al-Rahman ibn Muhammad Shaikh-Zādeh (died 1667) on Multaqā al-Abḥur (The intersections of the seas) by Muhammad bin Ibrahim al-Halabi al-Hanafi (died 1549), an important Islamic jurist who was born in Syria and studied and worked in Cairo and Istanbul. The work deals with issues of jurisprudence disputed among scholars of the Hanafi Mahdab (one of the four schools of law within Sunni Islam). The commentary analyzes the terms and concepts, explains their ...

Contributed by National Academic Library of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Astana

The Key to Success, Also Known As the Medium to All Parties and Attainment of Prosperity

The Key to Success, Also Known As the Medium to All Parties and Attainment of Prosperity

This illuminated manuscript is of a wird (prayer) called "Miftāḥ al-najāḥ al-mukanná bi-al-wasīlah ilá kull ḥizb wa-falāḥ", attributed to ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib, the fourth caliph of Islam. According to the colophon, this work was completed by Shaykh Kamāl ibn ‘Abd al-Ḥaqq al-Sabzawārī, the calligrapher and illuminator, in Astarabad (present-day Gorgan, Iran) in 941 AH (1534 AD). The text, divided into five compartments, is in calligraphic vocalized Naskh script in black ink and vocalized Thuluth in gold ink outlined in black. Illuminated rosettes with colored dots serve as verse markers ...

Contributed by Walters Art Museum

The Beginning for the Studious and the End for the Selective

The Beginning for the Studious and the End for the Selective

Muhammad ibn Ahmed ibn Rushd (also known by the Latinized version of his name, Averroes, 1126–98 AD; 520–95AH) was a Muslim polymath and the preeminent philosopher of Arab Spain. He was born in Cordoba to a well-respected family that was known for its public service. Although best known in the West for his commentaries on Aristotelian philosophy, Ibn Rushd wrote works on a wide range of subjects, from astronomy to Islamic jurisprudence to music theory. He defended reason and philosophy against disparaging religious scholars such as Al-Ghazali, arguing ...

Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina

The Spears of the Party of the Merciful against the Throats of the Party of the Reviled

The Spears of the Party of the Merciful against the Throats of the Party of the Reviled

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. Sufis (mystics) form an important element in Islamic society, and al-Hājj 'Umar ibn Sa'id al-Futi‏ Tal (1797-1864) provides ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

The Rewards of the Enlightened for their Defense of the Status of God’s Chosen Saints

The Rewards of the Enlightened for their Defense of the Status of God’s Chosen Saints

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. This text explains the basic principles of Sufism, pointing out the various stages of knowledge that Sufi mystics pass ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

The Goal of Seekers, a Commentary on the Work “The Mother of Proofs”

The Goal of Seekers, a Commentary on the Work “The Mother of Proofs”

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. Bughyat al-Tālibīn li-mā Taḍammanatuhu Umm al-Barāhīn (The goal of seekers, a commentary on the work “The mother of ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

The Foundations of Justice for Legal Guardians, Governors, Princes, Meritorious Rulers, and Kings (The Administration of Justice for Governors, Princes and the Meritorious Rulers)

The Foundations of Justice for Legal Guardians, Governors, Princes, Meritorious Rulers, and Kings (The Administration of Justice for Governors, Princes and the Meritorious Rulers)

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. ‘Uthmān ibn Muḥammad ibn ‘Uthmān ibn Fūdī (1754–1817) was a scholar and the founder of the Fulani ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

The Treasure of Khvarazm’Shah

The Treasure of Khvarazm’Shah

Ismā‘īl ibn Ḥasan Jurjānī (circa 1042–circa 1136, also seen as Jorjānī and Gurjānī), known popularly as Hakim Jurjānī, was among the most famous physicians of 12th-century Iran. In the period between the Islamic conquest and the time of Jurjānī, almost all scientific books by Iranians were written in Arabic, including such famous works as al-Qānūn fī al-tibb (The canon of medicine) by Ibn Sina (Avicenna). Jurjānī's medical encyclopedia, Zakhīrah-i Khvārazm’Shāhī (The treasure of Khvarazm’Shah) was the first major medical book in post-Islamic Iran written in ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of the Islamic Republic of Iran

The Compendium of Graces and Fountain of Charms

The Compendium of Graces and Fountain of Charms

This 17th-century manuscript contains the text of Majmoo’a al-Latā’if wa-Yanbu‘ al-Zarā’if (The compendium of graces and fountain of charms), a collection of esoteric and mystic prayers. The work is divided into many chapters, unnumbered and typically only a few pages long, with rubrications indicating the beginning of each chapter. The work discusses the spiritual expediency of praying in a certain manner; on a certain Islamic month, day of the week, or religious occasion, citing sayings of the Prophet Muhammad and other Islamic tradition as supporting arguments. The ...

Contributed by National Library of Bulgaria

The Three Books on Alchemy by Geber, the Great Philosopher and Alchemist

The Three Books on Alchemy by Geber, the Great Philosopher and Alchemist

Jābir ibn Hayyan (also known by his Latinized name Geber, circa 721–815) was a contemporary of the first Abbasids, who ruled circa 750–800, and one of the principal proponents of alchemy in the early Islamic period. The earliest biography of Jābir, in al-Fihrist, was written in the tenth century by Ibn al-Nadīm, a scholar and bibliographer living in Baghdad. It contains a fair number of legendary elements, although the list of works attributed to Jābir in this work has been shown by external evidence to be generally correct ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

Path of Eloquence

Path of Eloquence

This manuscript is a copy of Nahj al-balāghah (Path of eloquence), the classic compendium of the sermons, writings, and aphorisms of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (died 661), the fourth caliph. This work is especially revered by Shia Muslims who view ‘Ali and his descendants as the legitimate successors of the Prophet Muhammad. ‘Ali’s authorial voice is filtered here through his interpreter, Muhammad ibn al-Husayn, known as al-Sharif al-Radi (969 or 970–1016), who compiled the text from many early Islamic sources. The resulting anthology has led to debate over ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Radiances of Revelation and the Mysteries of Exegesis

The Radiances of Revelation and the Mysteries of Exegesis

Kitāb Anwār al-Tanzīl wa Asrār al-Ta’wīl (The radiances of revelation and the mysteries of exegesis) is the best-known work of the 13th century savant, ʻAbdallāh ibn ʻUmar al-Bayḍāwī (died circa 1286). As the title indicates, the subject of the work is Qurʼanic exegesis. After an introduction in which al-Bayḍāwī praises the science of al-tafsīr (exegesis) as the principal religious science and the basis for sharia (Islamic law), the text of the Qurʼan follows, with each ayah (verse) appearing in red ink accompanied by an explanatory passage in black ink ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Ladders of Prophecy

Ladders of Prophecy

This 16th century manuscript in Ottoman Turkish seeks to provide an encyclopedic overview of the life, times, and unique characteristics of the Prophet Muhammad. Included in its 720 pages of text are stories of early prophets mentioned in the Qurʼanand in Muslim tradition, information about Muhammad’s contemporaries, and lists of firsts associated with persons, events, and words. The author makes frequent use of hadiths from al-Bukhari, Abu Da’ud, and al-Tirmidhi. He cites the teachings of Sufi masters, such as Hasan al-Basri (died 728), the extreme ascetic Shaykh Abu ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Book of Muhammad

The Book of Muhammad

This Ottoman Turkish manuscript covers the life and attributes of the Prophet Muhammad. The author, Yazicioglu Mehmet (also seen as Yazicioglu Muhammad, died 1451), and his younger brother Ahmad Bican Yazicioglu (died circa 1466), were educated by their father, Yazici Salih. Both became adherents of influential Sufi master Haji Bayram Wali (died 1429 or 1430). Yazicioglu Mehmet later formed a school or retreat for Sufi study and practice and wrote a treatise in Arabic on the Prophet Muhammad entitled Magharib al-zaman (Sunset of time). The work presented here, Muhammediye (The ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Abu al-Saʻud's Qurʼanic Exegesis. Volume One

Abu al-Saʻud's Qurʼanic Exegesis. Volume One

Shown here is the first volume of an unknown number of volumes comprising Irshād al-ʻaql al-salīm ilá mazāyá al-kitāb al-karīm (Guidance of the sound mind to the virtues of the noble book), more commonly known as “Abu al- Saʻud’s exegesis” of the Qurʼan. It contains the first 18 surahs of the Muslim holy book and their exegeses, starting with al-Fātiḥah (The opening) and ending with al-Kahf (The cave). Partially drawing on previous exegeses, such as those of al-Baydawi, al-Qurtubi, al-Wahidi, and al-Baghawi, Abu al-Saʻud’s work is known for ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Treatise on Prosody

Treatise on Prosody

This treatise discusses different aspects of the art of versification, including meters, verses, letters, syllables, patterns of rhythm, and other topics relating to the poetic arts in early modern Persian poetry. The author, who is identified on folio 2, Mahmud ibn ʻUmar al-Najati al-Nisaburi (died 1328), is also known as Hamid al-Din Mahmud bin ʻUmar Nijati Nishapuri. No information exists about his place and date of birth or about his death. He is known to have produced a translation of and commentary on Tārīkh-i Utubi, also known as Tārīkh-i Yamīnī ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Basis for Judges

The Basis for Judges

Asās al-Quz̤āt (The basis for judges) is a lithographic book on Islamic jurisprudence, published in the late 19th century by the royal publishing house in Kabul. It was intended as a source for judges charged with applying the law on the basis of Islamic jurisprudence. The fine quality of the book and the binding reflect the importance given to law books in Afghanistan and other Islamic countries. Lithographic printing was invented in Europe in the late 18th century and spread widely on the Indian subcontinent from the early 19th ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Students' Guide

Students' Guide

Zakarīyā ibn Muḥammad al-Anṣārī, a Shafi’i jurist, teacher, and Sufi, was born in Egypt and studied at al-Azhar, the Sunni Islamic center of learning in Cairo. Throughout his long career (he lived about 100 years), al-Anṣārī held many positions as judge and Sufi authority. He is recognized as a major figure in medieval Sunni jurisprudence. He studied under the greatest teachers of the age and influenced later generations, being referred to by the honorific Shaykh al-Islam. Manhaj al-Ṭullāb (Students' guide) isan abridgement of Nawawī’s Minhājal-Ṭālibīn (Path ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

The Judges’ Assistant for Issues Raised by Adversaries at Law

The Judges’ Assistant for Issues Raised by Adversaries at Law

Mu’in al-hukam fi-ma yataraddudu bayn khusmin al-ahkam (The judges’ assistant for issues raised by adversaries at law) is a handbook of Islamic law procedure. It was written in the 15th century by ‘Ali ibn Khalil al-Tarabulsi, also known as ‘Ala’ al-Din ibn al-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Khalil al-Tarabulsi (or al-Tarabulusi), a Hanafi jurist in Jerusalem. After introducing his book with references to the singular importance of sharia(Islamic law) in the Qur’an and among the prophets, al-Tarabulsi proceeds to explain that he wrote in order to elucidate the principles ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

Illumination of the Virtues of the Family of the Most Favored Prophet

Illumination of the Virtues of the Family of the Most Favored Prophet

Nūr al-ibṣār fi manāqib Āl bayt al-Nabī al-mukhtār (Illumination of the virtues of the family of the Most Favored Prophet) is a collection of biographies of major personalities in Islamic history. It begins with narration of critical incidents in the life of the Prophet Muhammad, followed by biographies of Ahl al-Bayt(the Prophet’s family), the four earliest caliphs, and other significant figures of Islamic history, such as the founders of the four canonical legal traditions and the major Sufi orders. The author, Muʼmin ibn Ḥasan Muʼmin al-Shablanji (circa ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

Discerning and Specifying the Circumstances of Revelation of the Noble Hadiīth

Discerning and Specifying the Circumstances of Revelation of the Noble Hadiīth

Al-Bayān wa-al-taʻrīf fī asbāb wurūd al-ḥadīth al-sharīf (Discerning and specifying the circumstances of revelation of the noble hadith) is a textual and contextual interpretation of the hadith (the statements and actions of the Prophet Muhammad), written by Ibrahim ibn Muhammad Kamal al-Din al-Husayni al-Dimashqi (1644 or 1645−1708). Hadith plays an important part in Islam, and the Prophet’s utterances and activities are integral to its scriptural tradition. In the introduction to the work, the author states that in some cases the circumstances of a hadith are clear from the ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

Al-Furqānī’s Qurʼanic “Duʻā”

Al-Furqānī’s Qurʼanic “Duʻā”

This 13-page manuscript is a Muslim mystic duʻā (prayer) attributed to Sayf ibn ʻAlī ibn ʻĀmir al-Furqānī, an Omani Ibadite (also seen as Ibadhite and Ibadi) scholar who is known for his writings on Islamicesotericism. Ibadism (also seen as Ibadhism) is an Islamic denomination that traces its roots to the seventh century, at the time of the Sunni−Shiite schism. It is named after Abdullāh ibn Ibāḍ, one of the founding scholars of the doctrine. Today’s adherents of Ibadism are found primarily in Oman, in addition to other ...

Contributed by Sultan Qaboos University Library

Correction of “The Method,” i.e., “Minhaj al-talibin” by al-Nawawi

Correction of “The Method,” i.e., “Minhaj al-talibin” by al-Nawawi

This manuscript comprises five volumes of a six-volume work (volume two is missing) on Islamic law. It is a practical manual for judges of the Shafi’i legal tradition. It offers principles and precedents, with few of the linguistic and other digressions often found in legal writing. The work covers many topics including treatment of prisoners of war, alcoholic drinks, and chess. The manuscript is ascribed to jurist ‘Umar ibn Raslan al-Bulqini (1324−1403), but it may have been written by another of the several scholars of his family, there ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of Egypt

The Stanchion of Divine Precepts

The Stanchion of Divine Precepts

ʻUmdat al-farāʼiz̤(The stanchion of divine precepts) is a 1914 book on the laws of inheritance as described in the sharia (Islamic law). In the opening pages, the author, Nik Muhammad, formally praises the Afghan ruler Habibullah Khan (reigned 1901–19). He states that the book was written by decree of Prince Muʻin al-Saltana (i.e., Habibullah’s son, ‘Inayatullah Khan, who in 1929 would serve briefly as ruler of Afghanistan), and that it was printed by lithography at the Dar al-Saltana printing press in Kabul. The book includes a ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Concise History of Humanity

The Concise History of Humanity

Al-Mukhtaṣar fi akhbār al-bashar (The concise history of humanity) is a history of the world from Creation until 1331, the year of the author’s death. Abu al-Fida’ was a statesman, historian, geographer, and patron of intellectual life in the Syrian city of Hamāh. The work is valued nowadays for its treatment of the city in the 13th and 14th centuries. The first volume of this four-volume edition is dedicated to the history of the Abrahamic prophets and the lives of the Prophet Muhammad and his early companions. Subsequent volumes ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

The Garden of Mystery: The Third

The Garden of Mystery: The Third

Gulshan-i rāz (The garden of mystery) is a 20th century text on the Nizari Ismaʻili belief system, written by Nadir Shah Kayani (circa 1897‒circa 1971), a leader of the Ismaʻili community in Afghanistan. The title of this work deliberately echoes a celebrated Ismaʻili book of verse of the same name composed by Mahmud Shabistari in 1317. Nadir Shah’s work is organized in 14 sections, each of which discusses a philosophical or religious topic such as nafs (the soul) or namaz (prayer). The first section, on tafakkur(the faculty ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The History of Arabia, Ancient and Modern

The History of Arabia, Ancient and Modern

The History of Arabia,Ancient and Modern is a two-volume study, first published in 1833, by the Scottish Presbyterian cleric and man of letters Andrew Crichton (1790−1855). In his preface, Crichton presents his book as a first effort to “connect the past with the illustrations of modern discovery so as to exhibit the whole in moderate compass,” that is, in only two volumes. He acknowledges the ill-informed and prejudicial views that many readers bring to the subject of Islam, and states that he seeks to create a simple chronological ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Offering of Love on the Virtue of Invocation for the Most Honorable of Mankind

Offering of Love on the Virtue of Invocation for the Most Honorable of Mankind

Tuḥfat al-Ḥabībiyah, published in 1938 in Peshawar,is a Pushto book about the various Islamicdurood(complimentary ritual phrases), which are invoked during prayer times, and other ritual practices in praise of the Prophet Muhammad. It reviews a number of Islamic theological traditions and hadiths that discuss the benefits of invoking the verse sallū ʻalyhi wasallimū taslīmá (Ask blessings on him and salute him with a worthy salutation; Qurʼan 33:56), which is interpreted as a reference to Muhammad. These salutations are called “Salawat.” The contents include an Arabic preface ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Annals of Oman to 1728

Annals of Oman to 1728

Annals of Oman to 1728 is a translation into English of the portions dealing with the history of Oman of a much longer work on Islamic history by Sihan ibn Saʻid al-Izkiwi entitled Kashf al-ghummah al-jāmiʻ li-akhbār al-ummah (Removing consternation: Compilation of the history of the nation). The work in its entirety covers seven volumes in the published edition. The translator is Charles Edward Ross (1836‒1913), a British official in the Persian Gulf. Little is known of the author, al-Izkiwi. Scholars who have studied the text have had no ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Overflowing River in the Science of Inheritance and Patrimony

The Overflowing River in the Science of Inheritance and Patrimony

This small book preserves both the Arabic original and the German translation of Al-nahr al-fāʼiḍ fī ʻilm al-farāʼiḍ (The overflowing river in the science of inheritance and patrimony) by Yemeni author ʻAbd al-Qadir ibn Muhammad al-Naqshbandi, also known as al-Makki or al-Makkawi. Written for beginner students in a question-and-answer format, the 16-chapter book also provides examples after each question for further elucidation, earning it praise from four Yemeni judges who wrote at the beginning commending its ease of use. The book covers the different aspects of inheritance in Islamic jurisprudence ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Luminance of Explication and Mysteries of Proof in the Understanding of the Paradigms of the Science of Weights and Measures. Part Four

The Luminance of Explication and Mysteries of Proof in the Understanding of the Paradigms of the Science of Weights and Measures. Part Four

This alchemical manuscript consists of part of treatise three through treatise eight of the fourth part of Anwār al-bayān wa asrār al-burhān fī fahm awzān ʻilm al-mīzān (The luminance of explication and mysteries of proof in the understanding of the paradigms of the science of weights and measures). It was composed by the Persian alchemist Aidamur ibn ʻAli ibn Aidamur al-Jaldaki (also seen as al-Gildaki, died circa 1342). The author's name indicates that he was born in Jaldak, in present-day Afghanistan. Over the course of 17 years, al-Jaldaki traveled ...

Contributed by Wellcome Library

The Book of Scales

The Book of Scales

Kitāb al-mīzān (The book of scales) is a compendium of Islamic legal principles and practice by ‘Abd al-Wahhab al-Shaʻrani, an Egyptian scholar, prolific writer, and Sufi leader of 16th century Egypt. Rather than the usual compilation of legal rules based on one or another of the major Islamic schools of law, Kitāb al-mīzān is an argument for reconciliation among the four Sunni legal approaches. It emphasizes the similarities rather than the differences between these schools. Introspection is a characteristic of al-Shaʻrani’s writing. This work begins with a long and ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Understanding the Terminology of Bequests and Explaining the Division among Eligible Recipients

Understanding the Terminology of Bequests and Explaining the Division among Eligible Recipients

Yahya ibn Muhammad al-Ḥattab al-Ruʻayni (circa 1496‒circa 1587) was a mathematician, astronomer, and Maliki jurist. He was born in Mecca into a learned family of Maghrebi descent; his father Muhammad was likewise a mathematician and astronomer. A formidable author in his own right, Yahya is probably best known for his Irshād al-sā’lik al-muḥtāj ilá bayān afʻāl al-muʻtamir wa al-hāj (A guide to the rituals of Umra and Hajj). He also wrote on the sine quadrant and parallel circles, commenting on works by his father, as ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Al Sirajiyyah: Or the Mahommedan Law of Inheritance

Al Sirajiyyah: Or the Mahommedan Law of Inheritance

Kitāb al-Farāʼiḍ al-Sirājīyah (The Sirajite book of inheritance laws) is a treatise on the laws of inheritance according to the Hanafi School of Sunni Islamic jurisprudence. It is regarded as the most important work in this field. Commonly known by its short title al-Sirājīyah, the treatise is named after its author, Siraj al-Din Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Sajawandi, a 12th-century jurist and mathematician. The English philologist and jurist Sir William Jones (1746–94) published the first English translation of this work in Calcutta (present-day Kolkata), India in 1792. Presented ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Garden of Unitarianism

Garden of Unitarianism

Tauhid (the belief in the unity of God) is a central tenet of Islam that also serves as one of the main inspirations of the Masnavi (The spiritual couplets) of Maulana Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi (1207‒73). This principle also appears in the title of Ibrahim Shahidi Dadah’s book Gulshan-i Tauḥīd (Garden of Unitarianism), a work that was inspired by Rumi’s well-loved Masnavi. Shahidi Dadah (died 1550 or 1551) was born in Mughlah (Muğla, present-day Turkey) and was a Sufi of the MaulawI, or Mevlevi, order. In Gulshan-i ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

"A Small Geography" and "An Abridged History of the Prophets"

Jughrāfīyah-ʼi kūchak (A small geography) is a geography text for students. It begins with a definition of geography (“the science that reveals to us cities, mountains and the rivers on the earth”) and a discussion of the cardinal directions. The basic features of the earth’s surface are then defined and in some cases (as with continents and oceans) clarified by the listing of examples. There follows a discussion of Afghanistan’s borders, mountain ranges, and rivers, and short entries on its population, its capital, its political divisions and government ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Refutation of the Materialists

Refutation of the Materialists

Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (1838–97) was a pan-Islamic thinker, political activist, and journalist, who sought to revive Islamic thought and liberate the Muslim world from Western influence. Many aspects of his life and his background remain unknown or controversial, including his birthplace, his religious affiliation, and the cause of his death. He was likely born in Asadabad, near present-day Hamadan, Iran. His better known history begins when he was 18, with a one-year stay in India that coincided with the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857‒59. In what would become a ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Gulzar Calligraphic Panel

Gulzar Calligraphic Panel 

This calligraphic panel executed in black and red on a white ground decorated in gold contains a number of prayers (du'a's) directed to God, the Prophet Muhammad, and his son-in-law 'Ali. The letters of the larger words are executed in nasta'liq script and are filled with decorative motifs, animals, and human figures. This style of script, filled with various motifs, is called gulzar, which literally means 'rose garden' or 'full of flowers.' It usually is applied to the interior of inscriptions executed in nasta'liq, such as ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Verses in Persian and Chaghatay

Verses in Persian and Chaghatay 

This calligraphic fragment includes a number of verses in Persian and Chaghatay Turkish (Turkish spoken in Central Asia). A continuous Persian lyrical poem (ghazal) is written in the top and bottom horizontal rectangular panels. Another ghazal appears written in diagonal in the right and left vertical columns. Both ghazals are by the famous Persian poet Shaykh Sa'di (died 1292) and address moral issues. In the central text panel, verses in Chaghatay Turkish are written in black nasta'liq script on beige paper, surrounded by cloud bands on a gold ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Knowledge of the Movement of the Stars and What It Portends in Every Year

Knowledge of the Movement of the Stars and What It Portends in Every Year 

Timbuktu, founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries of Timbuktu contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. This collection of writings (date unknown) draws upon the Greco-Roman legacy of astronomy, with the addition of discoveries made by Muslim scholars ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

Explanations of Problems in Arithmetic with Examples

Explanations of Problems in Arithmetic with Examples 

Timbuktu, founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries of Timbuktu contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. This commentary by the 18th-century scholar al-Rasmuki explains a work by the medieval mathematician al-Samlali. Using charts and examples of problems, the ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

Curing Diseases and Defects Both Apparent and Hidden

Curing Diseases and Defects Both Apparent and Hidden 

Timbuktu, founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries of Timbuktu contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. This compilation of cures (date unknown) instructs the reader about methods of diagnosing and medicating the sick. The author explains the use ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

On the Calculation of Numbers in the Science of Astronomy

On the Calculation of Numbers in the Science of Astronomy

Timbuktu, founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries of Timbuktu contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. This work (date unknown) explains mathematical calculations and their use in astronomy and astrology. The final portion of the manuscript is missing.

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

Explanation of the Work of al-Ghazali and Nuh ibn al-Tahir al-Fulani

Explanation of the Work of al-Ghazali and Nuh ibn al-Tahir al-Fulani 

Timbuktu, founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries of Timbuktu contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. This work by Sulayman ibn Ahmad comments on the work of the famous scholar al-Ghazali and discusses a commentary on Ghazali's ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

Verses by Jami

Verses by Jami

This calligraphic fragment includes verses composed by the famous Persian poet Jami (died 1492 [897 AH]), whose name appears in the lower horizontal panel inscribed with the verse: “Jami does not try to seek fame.” In the two diagonal registers in the central text panel, the verses describe mystical union with God: “If your wish is to meet, say so / If you need something from God, say so / When the mystic [i.e., the “intoxicated with ecstasy”] heard the name of the Lord / He sighed and expired from the remembrance ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Capstone Dictionary of Unusual Words of Hadith and of Yore

Capstone Dictionary of Unusual Words of Hadith and of Yore

Al-Nihāyah fī gharīb al-ḥadīth wa-al-athar (Capstone dictionary of unusual words of hadith and of yore) is a four-volume dictionary of words in the hadiths, or the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, by the medieval scholar Majd al-Din Ibn al-Athir (1149−1210). It is a specialized concordance of unusual or less-common words occurring in hadiths, supplemented by terms from the Qurʼan and early Islamic history. The work was recognized in its day as a significant contribution to lexicography and was incorporated into the magisterial Lisān al-ʻArab (The Arabic language) by Ibn ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

The Finest of Adornments is an Exposition on the Jewels of Faith

The Finest of Adornments is an Exposition on the Jewels of Faith

This manuscript, written in 1754, is a commentary on an earlier work by a Turkish author. The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts, located in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997. Safvet beg Bašagić (1870-1934) was a Bosnian scholar, poet, journalist, and museum director who assembled a collection of 284 manuscript volumes and 365 print volumes that reflect the development of Islamiccivilization from its inception to the early 20th century. The manuscript is ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

Correct Words and Variations in the Persian Language

Correct Words and Variations in the Persian Language

This 16th-century manuscript is a Persian dictionary, written at the time of the Mongol expansion into Persia (present-day Iran). The format of the dictionary follows that of older Arabic dictionaries, in which words were arranged according to the last consonant. The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997. Safvet beg Bašagić (1870-1934) was a Bosnian scholar, poet, journalist, and museum director who assembled a collection of 284 manuscript ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

The Rose Garden

The Rose Garden

The Persian poet and scholar Muṣliḥ ud-Dīn Sadī Shīrāzī (circa 1213-1292) is known primarily as the author of Gulistan (The rose garden), one of the great masterpieces of Persian literature, which he completed in 1259. The work has a didactic and ethical character, and is still widely read, in the original Persian and in translations in many languages. This manuscript copy is written in the ta’liq script in two different hands, and contains numerous explanations and remarks in the margins and in the text. The manuscript is dated 1585 ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

Collected Poems

Collected Poems

This manuscript, most likely from the second half of the 19th century, is a collection of poems by the great Persian poet Urfi, who lived and worked in Mughal India in the late 16th century (died 1591), and who was known for his splendid and deeply melancholy qasidas (odes). Urfi had a great influence on the development of poetry in Turkey and throughout the Ottoman Empire. The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

The Book of Aroodh

The Book of Aroodh

This manuscript, by an unknown author, is an incomplete work that endeavors to apply Arabic poetry metrics to Ottoman Turkish poems. It starts with the seas (or metrics) of al-mutaqaribar-ramal, and al-munsarih. The transcription is possibly from the 17th century. The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997. Safvet beg Bašagić (1870-1934) was a Bosnian scholar, poet, journalist, and museum director who assembled a collection of ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

Summary of Disagreements Between at-Taftazani and al-Jurrujani

Summary of Disagreements Between at-Taftazani and al-Jurrujani

This work by an unknown author lists 23 issues in Arabic rhetoric (balaagha) on which two prominent scholars in the field, Saad ud-Deen at-Taftazani (died 1390 [791 AH]) and Abu Bakr Abdul Qahir al-Jurrujani (died 1078 [471 AH]), disagreed. The manuscript was recreated from an earlier original of uncertain date by Mustafa Garahishari in 1805 (1220 AH). The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997. Safvet beg Bašagić ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

On the Art of al-Aroodh

On the Art of al-Aroodh

This manuscript book from 1554 is in two sections. The first section is a grammatical work by an unknown author that compares the conjugation of verbs in Arabic and in Farsi, indicating changes in the forms each time a different tense is used, and that also contains a list of the singular and plural forms of many Arabic nouns. The second section of the book is a brief article, in Ottoman Turkish, by an unknown author, on the metrics of Arabic poetry. The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

Grammar and Its Standards

Grammar and Its Standards

This anonymous work from 1553 is a Persian grammar, written in Arabic. It includes some Arabic adjectives translated into Persian, and is written in a poor nasta’līq script. The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997. Safvet beg Bašagić (1870-1934) was a Bosnian scholar, poet, journalist, and museum director who assembled a collection of 284 manuscript volumes and 365 print volumes that reflect the development of Islamic ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

The Second Art: the Science of Expression

The Second Art: the Science of Expression

This work by Isma’il bin Mustafa bin Mas’ud al-Kalanbawi deals with proper usage in the Arabic language. The work takes the form of a list of 20 questions and answers about different aspects of the language. The book was transcribed in 1805 (1220 AH). The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997. Safvet beg Bašagić (1870-1934) was a Bosnian scholar, poet, journalist, and museum director who ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

Excerpts from al-Kulliyyat

Excerpts from al-Kulliyyat

Transcribed in 1805, this manuscript is comprised of excerpts from al-Kulliyyat, a dictionary of terminology and language differences compiled by Abu l’Baqa al-Husseini al-Kafawi al-Hanafi (died 1683 [1094 AH]). The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997. Safvet beg Bašagić (1870-1934) was a Bosnian scholar, poet, journalist, and museum director who assembled a collection of 284 manuscript volumes and 365 print volumes that reflect the development of ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

Comments on the Summary of

Comments on the Summary of "al-Miftāh"

This early 19th-century work by Qara Hafiz Efendi on Arabic rhetoric is a commentary on Talkhīṣ al-Miftāḥ (The summary of al-Miftāḥ) by Jalal al-Din Muhammad al-Qazwini (1267 or 1268‒1338), better known as al-Khatib al-Qazwini (the Preacher al-Qazwini). Talkhīṣ al-Miftāḥ was itself a commentary on Miftāḥ al-ʻulūm (The key to knowledge), by Yusuf ibn Abi Bakr al-Sakkaki (born 1160). Al-Qazwini was a student of al-Sakkaki, and both men were important scholars of Arabic rhetoric. Efendi’s work also contains excerpts from another work, a dictionary of language usage, figurative speech ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

An Essay on Statements in Logic

An Essay on Statements in Logic

This treatise by the prominent Shafi’i theologian Muhammad al-Amidi (died 1233 [631 AH]) deals with questions of original existence and mental existence. The manuscript copy shown here was made in 1805 by an unknown scribe. It is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997. Safvet beg Bašagić (1870–1934) was a Bosnian scholar, poet, journalist, and museum director who assembled a collection of 284 manuscript volumes and 365 print ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

A Treatise on Book Titles

A Treatise on Book Titles

This short work by the prominent Shafi’i theologian Muhammad al-Amidi (died 1233 [631 AH]) continues an earlier discussion by the same author about original existence and mental existence. In this work, al-Amidi considers the elements of place and time and discusses their relationship to existence. The manuscript copy shown here is by an unknown scribe, and dates from the early 19th century. It is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

An Essay on the Field of Scholarship

An Essay on the Field of Scholarship

This work by Muhammad al-Amidi (died 1786 [1180 AH]?) examines the concept of knowledge, both as innate (hudhoori) and acquired (husooli). The author explores the disagreement between philosophers and theologians over the nature of divine knowledge, and the difference between divine and human knowledge. This manuscript copy dates from 1805. It is from the Bašagić Collection of IslamicManuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997. Safvet beg Bašagić (1870–1934) was a Bosnian scholar, poet, journalist ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

A Treatise on the Division of Theoretical Scholarship

A Treatise on the Division of Theoretical Scholarship

This four-page essay on the difference between pre-theoretical belief and theoretical imagination was written by the prominent Shafi’i theologian Muhammad al-Amidi (died 1233 [631 AH]). The manuscript copy shown here was made in the early 19th century by an unknown scribe. It is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997. Safvet beg Bašagić (1870–1934) was a Bosnian scholar, poet, journalist, and museum director who assembled a collection of ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

Comparisons in Arabic Grammar

Comparisons in Arabic Grammar

A considerable portion of this untitled work by an unknown author is devoted to a discussion of al-qiyas, or comparison, in Arabic grammar. The work also contains excerpts from a work by Muftizade and disquisitions about logic, as well as other references to Muftizade. The manuscript was transcribed by Abdallah al-Hamshini. The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997. Safvet beg Bašagić (1870-1934) was a Bosnian scholar, poet ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

Sketches from the Life of Mahmud Pasa

Sketches from the Life of Mahmud Pasa

This manuscript, completed by an anonymous scribe in 1716, is a copy of a late-15th century biography of Mahmud Pasha, who served as grand vizier to Sultan Mehmed II. Mahmud Pasha (surnamed Angelović) came from Byzantine Christian parents, and was known for his military leadership and his patronage of literature and the arts. He fell out of favor with the sultan and was executed in 1474. Mahmud Pasha was popular, and stories from his life were widely read. The author of the original 15th-century work is unknown. The manuscript is ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

Manual on Conditions and Contracts, Income and Expenditure

Manual on Conditions and Contracts, Income and Expenditure

This work by the Turkish poet and historian Mustafā bin Ahmed (1541-99), also known as Ālī Efendi, was written in the year 1599 (1008 A.H.), during the reign of Sultan Mehmed III. It is a selection from a longer work by the same author, and contains 32 chapters on the history of the origin, fall, and territorial extent of 32 dynasties. The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

Exploits of Sultan Selim

Exploits of Sultan Selim

This work, ascribed to the well-known Turkish historian Hoca Sa'deddīn Efendi (1536-99), tells stories and anecdotes from the life of Sultan Selim I (1465-1520, reigned 1512-20). The stories are said to have come from the author’s father, who served for six years in the court of Sultan Selim I. The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997. Safvet beg Bašagić (1870-1934) was a Bosnian scholar, poet ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

The

The "Fatḥīyah" Essay on Using the Mughayyab Quadrant

This treatise by Badr al-Din al-Maridini (born 1423), better known as Sibt al-Maridini, includes an introduction, 20 sections, and a conclusion. The treatise discusses a range of issues in astronomy, surveying, and mathematics. It describes the sine quadrant and parallel circles, and explains how to measure the width of a river, the angle of a star, the depth of a well, or the height of a mountain. Al-Maridini, whose parents were from Damascus, was born, raised, and educated in Cairo late in the Mamluk Dynasty (1250–1517). The manuscript is ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

An Essay on the Tilt of the Mujayyab Quadrant

An Essay on the Tilt of the Mujayyab Quadrant

This two-page manuscript by Ibrahim ibn Mustafa al-Halabi (died 1776) is about the sine quadrant and parallel circles. The manuscript is from the Bašagić Collection of Islamic Manuscripts in the University Library of Bratislava, Slovakia, which was inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997. Safvet beg Bašagić (1870-1934) was a Bosnian scholar, poet, journalist, and museum director who assembled a collection of 284 manuscript volumes and 365 print volumes that reflect the development of Islamic civilization from its inception to the early 20th century. The manuscript ...

Contributed by University Library in Bratislava

History of the Afghans

History of the Afghans

The History of the Afghans, published in English in 1829, is the first history of the Afghan people translated from a non-Western language to appear in a European language. The original work was composed in Persian, in 1609-11, by Neamet Ullah (active 1613-30) in the court of the Mughal emperor Jahangir (1569-1627). Ullah based his work on material compiled by Hybet Khan, an attendant of the Afghan General Khan Jahan Lodi. The translation is by the German philologist and Orientalist Bernhard Dorn (1805-81), who worked from a copy of the ...

Contributed by Government College University Lahore

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque. View of the Marble Reading-Stand for the Qurʼan inside the Mosque

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque. View of the Marble Reading-Stand for the Qurʼan inside the Mosque

This photograph of a marble Qurʼan holder at the main mosque of the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 with the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern). Section of Inscriptions on the Wall of the Minaret

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern). Section of Inscriptions on the Wall of the Minaret

This photograph of a minaret on the east facade of the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern). Column

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern). Column

This photograph of a detail from the east facade of the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern). End

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern). End

This photograph of a detail of the east facade of the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern). Beginning

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern). Beginning

This photograph of a detail of the east facade of the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern). Inscription in the Panel of the Entry Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern). Inscription in the Panel of the Entry Niche

This photograph of a detail of the east facade of the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern). Inscription on the Walls of the Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern). Inscription on the Walls of the Facade

This photograph of a detail from the east facade of the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern). Middle of the Inscription

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern). Middle of the Inscription

This photograph of a detail of the east facade of the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Marble Column

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Marble Column

This photograph of a portion of the courtyard arcade at the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Waymarks to Benefits

The Waymarks to Benefits

This manuscript, dated AH 1294 (AD 1877), contains a copy of a very famous prayer book by the Moroccan Sufi, Muḥammad al-Jazūlī (died 1465), with the title Dalā’il al-Khayrāt (The Waymarks to Benefits). The work exists in many manuscripts and is one of the most widely copied Islamic texts. The opening section consists of the 99 names of Allah, followed by prayers and blessings for the Prophet Muhammad, which are divided into sections for daily recitation. The Arabic script is a clear, but slightly ornate, Naskh. The copyist used ...

Contributed by Holy Spirit University of Kaslik

Commentary on the Comprehensive Book on the Management of Horses

Commentary on the Comprehensive Book on the Management of Horses

The legal scholar ‘Umar ibn Raslān al-Bulqīnī  was from a renowned family of Egyptian scholars of Palestinian origin. In his Muqaddima (Introduction), the great Arab historian and historiographer Ibn Khaldūn (1332–1406) praised al-Bulqīnī as the most celebrated jurist of his era, even though Al-Bulqīnī did not gain the prestigious title of Šayh al-Islām until later in life. Al-Bulqīnī's erudition and deep knowledge of Islamic tradition are reflected in this work, Qaṭr al-Sayl fi Amr al-Hayl (Commentary on the comprehensive book on the management of horses), which is an ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Lights of the Stars

The Lights of the Stars

The present manuscript is a commentary entitled Anwār al-nujūm (The lights of the stars) by an author who appears to have stated his name as Jamist al-Rumi (Jamist the Byzantinian). The work is based on Al-zīj al-jadīd (The new astronomical tabulations) by Alī ibn Ibrāhīm Ibn al-Shāṭir (died 1375), the most-distinguished Muslim astronomer of the 14th century. Ibn al-Shāṭir was active as muwaqqit (timekeeper) at the Umayyad mosque in Damascus, where he constructed a magnificent sundial to adorn the central minaret; it had special curves to measure the times ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Interlinear Qurʼan: Surat al-Nisa'

Interlinear Qurʼan: Surat al-Nisa'

The recto of this Qurʼan fragment contains parts of the first three verses of the fourth chapter of the Qurʼan, Surat al-Nisa' (Chapter of the women). At the top left side of the folio are the chapter title and the number of its verses (176) in bold gold Kufi letters. The title is in a gold-painted rectangular band ornamented with a gold medallion outlined in blue projecting into the left margin. Below the surah heading appears the first half of the first verse in large black muhaqqaq script, with diagonal ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Divination by the Qurʼan

Divination by the Qurʼan

This single sheet of a Fal-i Qurʼan lays out in rhyming Persian distichs (couplets) the means of fal(divination) by letters selected at random when opening to a page of the Qurʼan. This folio originally was included at the end of a Safavid Persian Qurʼan, immediately after the last surah (chapter), Surat al-Nas, and a closing prayer on behalf of the Prophet and his family. The layout of the divination text, the script, and the remaining original illumination in the text frame are typical of fals placed at the end ...

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Interlinear Qurʼan (5: 89-95)

Interlinear Qurʼan (5: 89-95)

This interlinear Qurʼan fragment of Surat al-Ma'idah (The table/the repast) is believed to belong to a manuscript dating from A.H. 1207 (A.D. 1792–93). The Qurʼan includes translation in Persian written in complete sentences in red ink between each verse of the Arabic original. The late 18th-century practice of translation (or even paraphrasing) reflects the development of the production of interlinear Qurʼans over the centuries. Some of the earliest bilingual Qurʼans include only word-by-word translations; this is especially the case for Qurʼans from the Ilkhanid period ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Surat al-Nas and Du'a

Surat al-Nas and Du'a

This fragment contains on the top line the last two verses of the final surah (chapter) of the Qurʼan, Surat al-Nas (Chapter of mankind). This chapter extols seeking refuge in the Lord from Satan, who, like al-jinn(the spirits), whispers evil things in the hearts of people (116:5–6). The verses at the top of the folio are separated by two verse markers shaped like gold disks with five blue dots on their peripheries. Immediately below the last verse appears a prayer in five lines praising God, the Prophet ...

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Safavid Qurʼan (2:11-27)

Safavid Qurʼan (2:11-27)

This fragment contains verses 11–21 from the second surah (chapter) of the Qurʼan, al-Baqarah (The cow), which continues with verses 21–27 on the fragment’s verso. Al-Baqarah appears immediately after the introductory chapter al-Fatihah (The opening) and, with a total of 286 verses, is the longest chapter in the Qurʼan. Its name derives from the parable of Moses and the cow mentioned in 2:67–71, in which is taught that people should not put forward excuses to justify disobedience. The surah is early Medinan and stresses faith ...

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Bismillah and Qurʼanic Verse (81:1-14)

Bismillah and Qurʼanic Verse (81:1-14)

This Qurʼanic fragment includes the bismillah (In the name of God) and verses 1–14 of surah (chapter) 81, al-Takwir (The folding up). These verses constitute some of the most graphic descriptions in the Qurʼan of Doomsday and the associated reversal of natural phenomena. The sun folds up, stars fall from the sky, mountains vanish, oceans boil over, and a blazing fire is kindled. Souls are sorted out and men’s deeds weighed so that “each soul may know what it has put forward” (81:14). The fragment shows a ...

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Anonymous Arabic and Persian Poetic Verses

Anonymous Arabic and Persian Poetic Verses

This fragment contains an Arabic poem in eight verses in the center panel and Persian poetical verses in small rectangular registers arranged around the central panel and pasted above a light blue background. The Arabic poem stresses Muhammad’s ability to provide intercession for his community on the Day of Judgment. It is a kind of praise or request directed towards the Prophet that is seen in a number of other calligraphic panels meant either for public display or included in albums of calligraphies. The Arabic and Persian verses are ...

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The Opening

The Opening

This calligraphic panel includes the bismillah (In the name of God) at the top, followed by the Qurʼan's first surah (chapter), al-Fatihah (The opening). The surah introduces the Qurʼan by praising God and asking for his guidance to the right path. On the last line, the Fatihah panel is signed by a certain 'Aliriza and dated A.H. 1241 (A.D. 1825). The entire specimen is calligraphed in dark brown naskh (cursive) script on a beige paper, which is framed by a series of alternating gold and dark blue ...

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al-Baydawi's

This folio contains the illuminated frontispiece and title from a manuscript of Anwar al-tanzil wa asrar al-ta'wil (The lights of revelation and the secrets of interpretation), a work consisting of a popular Qurʼanic tafsir (exegesis) composed by the 13th-century scholar al-Baydawi. The title appears in the top panel of the frontispiece, in white ink with the letters drawn out at the vertical to fit into the shape of the horizontal register. The white letters are outlined in black ink and emerge from a gold background decorated with blue and ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This calligraphic fragment includes two separate horizontal panels cut out and pasted onto a cardboard backing. The upper band contains verse 86 of surah (chapter) three of the Qurʼan, Al 'Imran (The family of 'Imran); the lower band includes verse 89 of the same chapter. The surah calls on Muslims to hold together in harmony and friendship. The ayah (verse) marker in the lower band consists of a gold roundel composed of concentric circles outlined in dark brown ink. Three words were omitted from the original text and have been ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This Qurʼanic fragment includes verses from several surahs (chapters) in the Qurʼan. On the right side, the fragment contains the first 24 verses of the 56th chapter, al-Waqi'ah (The inevitable). The surah’s heading appears at the top of the right folio, in white ink on a gold ground and framed by a horizontal cartouche decorated with vine motifs on a blue or red background. Below the frame is a simple horizontal band of light blue floral vines and minuscule red dots contained in a gold-outlined panel. The heading ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This Qurʼanic fragment includes verses 35–36 of the 40th chapter of the Qurʼan entitled al-Ghafir (The forgiver), also known as al-Mu'min (The believer). Verses 36 and 37 of the same surah continue on the fragment's verso. This chapter of the Qurʼan uses the story of an individual believer (Moses) among people ruled by an arrogant leader (Pharaoh) to show how faith can prevail against evil. These two verses state that God closes the hearts of "arrogant and obstinate transgressors," such as Pharaoh, who believes wrongly that he ...

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Beginning of Niẓāmī's

Beginning of Niẓāmī's "Iqbalnamah"

This illuminated folio continues the beginning of Niẓāmī Ganjavī's Iqbalnamah (The book of progress), the second of two sections in the last book, Iskandarnamah (The book of Alexander the Great), of the author’s Khamsah (Quintet). It follows the first two illuminated folios of the book and provides multiple subhan (praises) of the Creator, as well as a eulogy on Muhammad, the Lord of the Messengers. Niẓāmī introduces each of his five books with introductory praises of God and His Prophet before launching into a narrative. The verso of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Beginning of Niẓāmī's

Beginning of Niẓāmī's "Khusraw va Shirin"

This illuminated folio contains the introductory praise dar tawhid-i Bari (to God and His Unity, or on the Unity of the Creator) of the second book of Niẓāmī Ganjavī's Khamsah (Quintet), entitled Khusraw va Shirin. It continues the text of the first two folios of the book, also held in the Library of Congress, and thus completes the praise of God typically found at the beginning of each book of the Khamsah. This first section is then followed, as seen on this folio, by an examination of the istidlal ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This calligraphic fragment includes some of the terminal verses (43–53) of the 30th chapter of the Qurʼan entitled Surat al-Rum (The Romans). This chapter deals with world power, as symbolized by the Persian and Roman empires, and the Day of Judgment. The surah advises the reader to turn to the right religion before that day. The verso of this calligraphic fragment includes the last seven verses of the Surat al-Rum, as well as the first four verses of the subsequent chapter, Surat Luqman, which advises righteousness and wisdom. The ...

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Poetic Verses Offering Advice

Poetic Verses Offering Advice

This thin fragment is quite damaged by worm holes and has been pasted to a larger sheet for the purpose of preservation. Written in black Nasta'liq script tending towards Shikastah, the text begins with a ruba'i (iambic quatrain), continues with two tak bayt (single verses), and ends with a ghazal (lyrical poem) with the rhyming terminal sound sati. The verses are separated by diagonal lines in red ink, and the term aydan (also) at the top of the left column initiates the ghazal. These various poetical verses provide ...

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Verses from Niẓāmī's

Verses from Niẓāmī's "Divan"

This calligraphic fragment includes several verses from the Divan (Compendium of poems) by Niẓāmī' (1140 or 1141–1202 or 1203). After a beginning invocation to God, the verses describe how certain things and people fulfill particular roles in the world: “(For) every idol that they fashioned / They sewed a robe the size of its body / Not everyone can be the confidant of power / Not every donkey can carry Jesus.” The verses are executed in dark-brown ink on a beige paper framed by a blue border. The text is pasted to ...

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Prayer (Du'a) for Forgiveness

Prayer (Du'a) for Forgiveness

This calligraphic panel includes a number of prayers for increased faith, blessing, well-being, and good fortune for its owner. It also petitions for forgiveness both before and after death. Finally, it offers prayers for the Prophet Muhammad and his family and invokes God as the Most Merciful. The text is executed in black Naskh script and is fully vocalized. Separate parts of the text are divided by gold roundels, a structure reminiscent of Qurʼanic verses. Written on a beige sheet of paper, the text panel is framed by several borders ...

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Levha, or Calligraphic Panel, Praising 'Ali

Levha, or Calligraphic Panel, Praising 'Ali

This calligraphic panel is written in black Nasta'liq on a brown surface and framed by two borders in plain green and blue decorated with gold stars. The inscription provides an invocation of 'Ali through his many epithets: “The Successor of the Leader of Humankind and Spirits, the Mustafa in Reality.” 'Ali is described as the rightful viceregent of the Prophet Muhammad (i.e., Mustafa, which means “the Chosen One”), a ruler of men and spirits, and a true manifestation of prophethood. This invocation to the son-in-law of the Prophet ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Ruba'i of Ḥāfiẓ

Ruba'i of Ḥāfiẓ

This calligraphic fragment includes a ruba'i (iambic pentameter quatrain), by the famous Persian poet Ḥāfiẓ (died 791/1388–89). Beginning with an invocation to God as the Glorified (huwa al-'aziz), the verses read: “Those who turn dust to gold by the gaze, / Could they also glance at me from the corner of (their) eyes? / Hiding my pain from pretentious doctors is better. / May they cure (me) from the treasury of the invisible.” Ḥāfiẓ uses the metaphor of al-kimiya (alchemy) to describe a man's painful and ardent desire ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Jahan Malak Khatun’s Prayer for Power

Jahan Malak Khatun’s Prayer for Power

This calligraphic panel includes three bayts (verses) of Persian poetry possibly composed by Jahan Malak Khatun, a female poet of the Qajar period (not to be confused with the 14th century poet of the same name). Beginning with an invocation of God as al-ghafur (forgiving) and al-rahim (merciful), the verses then provide a repeated versified duʻaʼ (prayer) for the patron's continued mulk (power): “Oh, the continuity of power depends on the survival of your substance / Good fortune has sewn a cloak of power for your rank / Your policy on ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Levha (Panel) in Honor of Imam 'Ali

Levha (Panel) in Honor of Imam 'Ali

This single panel praises Muhammad's son-in-law 'Ali and his famous double-edged sword Dhu al-Fiqar, which he inherited from the Prophet, with the topmost statement executed in black ink: "There is no victory except 'Ali [and] there is no sword except Dhu al-Fiqar." The vocalization for this proclamation is executed in red ink. Immediately below the inscription eulogizing 'Ali appear several lines executed in red (vocalized in blue ink), blue (vocalized in red ink), and black (vocalized in red ink) praising the Imam, the Prophet Muhammad, and God. The four ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

“Hikmah” (Wise Saying)

“Hikmah” (Wise Saying)

This calligraphic fragment includes a hikmah (wise saying or proverb) on the virtues of helping al-fuqara'(the poor) and endurance in hardship. These qualities increase faith in the heart of fi qalb al-mu'min (the believer). The proverb begins on the penultimate line, continues on the last line of the text panel, and runs sequentially from the first line down. Several words are lost, replaced, and misspelled, suggesting that the piece was cut out (or salvaged) and pasted to this folio. The text is executed in black naskh script on ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Prayer for God's Mercy

Prayer for God's Mercy

This calligraphic fragment includes a Persian poem seeking the mercy and assistance of God. The verses read: “Oh Sun of the proud skies, / Oh Gem of the sea freed from need, / I have hope (to receive) your favor, / Kindness, generosity, and support of me.” The verses are executed in black nasta'liq script on a beige paper. A small and rather sloppy frame has been pasted to the text panel and onto a larger sheet of paper backed by cardboard. The fragment is neither dated nor signed, but it may ...

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'Id (Feast Day) Blessing

'Id (Feast Day) Blessing

This calligraphic panel executed in nasta'liq script on a beige paper sprinkled with gold flecks is provided with a (water-damaged) frame and is pasted to a brown piece of paper strengthened with cardboard. Between the two lines of calligraphy, which offer a prayer to a ruler on the occasion of 'id (also seen as 'Id and Eid), appears another small fragment cut out and pasted in the center right. It reads: "In the name of Muhammad and Muhammad's family [prayers upon them].” The two main lines of calligraphy ...

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Invocations to 'Ali

Invocations to 'Ali

This calligraphic fragment includes two bayts (verses) invoking the Prophet Muhammad's son-in-law 'Ali through his various epithets. Beginning with an invocation ya 'Ali al-a'ala (to 'Ali as the Greatest), the verses then read: “Oh, Lion of God, Leader of Haydar, victory! / Oh, Stormer of the door of the Castle of Khaybar, victory! / The doors of hope have shut on my face. / Oh, Possessor of (the sword) Dhu al-Fiqar and (the servant) Qanbar, victory!” 'Ali is petitioned through his many names, attributes, and historical exploits to bring about hope ...

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'Id (Feast Day) Quatrain

'Id (Feast Day) Quatrain

This calligraphic fragment shows a ruba'i (iambic pentameter quatrain), written in nasta'liq script by the calligrapher Muhammad Qamar al-Din. He has signed the quatrain in the lower-left corner with the expression "katabahu [written by] Muhammad Qamar al-Din." Nothing is known about this calligrapher, although the steady nasta'liq script suggests that it was executed in Persia (Iran) during the 16th or 17th centuries. The text is framed by cloud bands executed in black ink and highlighted with gold paint, around which a blue frame with interlacing gold vine ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

These fragments include verses from the 17th chapter of the Qurʼan entitled Bani Isra'il (The Children of Israel) or al-Isra' (The night journey). Surat Bani Isra'il describes a number of events, including the Prophet Muhammad's isra' (night journey) to Jerusalem and his mi'raj (ascension) through the skies. The verses (73−84) on the two fragments in the Library of Congress describe the value of prayer and the Qurʼan. The first reads: “We sent down in the Qurʼan / that which is a healing and a mercy / to ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This calligraphic panel includes the bismillah (in the name of God) at the top, followed by the 111th surah of the Qurʼan, entitled al-Masad (The plaited rope), also known as al-Lahab (The flame). This chapter contains five verses, all of which are included on the panel. This very early Meccan surah stresses that cruelty is ultimately self-destructive, as angry men and their wives perish in their own rage: “Perish the hands of the Father of Flames, perish he. / No profit to him from all his wealth and all his gains ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This Qurʼanic fragment includes, on the left side, the surah heading and first two verses of the 14th chapter of the Qurʼan entitled Ibrahim (Abraham). On the right side appear verses 6−7 of the same surah, a continuation of the chapter's previous verses (2−6) present on the folio's verso. Combined, the fragment's recto and verso provide the title and first seven verses of Surat Ibrahim, which discuss how each nation received its own prophet to deliver God's message. In verses 5−6, Moses is ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This calligraphic fragment includes the beginning of verse 18 from the fifth chapter of the Qurʼan entitled al-Ma'idah (The table). The text continues with the end of verse 18 and the beginning of verse 19 on the folio's verso. Surat al-Ma'idah describes the corruption of religions, in particular Judaism and Christianity, prior to the advent of Islam. Even if warned, the Qurʼan states in 5:18 on the verso that Jews and Christians turned away from the truth and violated their covenants: “Both the Jews and Christians ...

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Qurʼanic Chapters 1 and 114

Qurʼanic Chapters 1 and 114

This calligraphic fragment is executed in fine shikastah (literally, “broken”) script and includes an initial bismillah (in the name of God) and surahs (chapters) one and 114 of the Qurʼan. At the top appears the first chapter of the Qurʼan, entitled al-Fatihah (The opening). It reads: “In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. / Praise be to God, the Lord of the worlds; / The Most Gracious, the Most Merciful; / Master of the Day of Judgment. / You do we worship, and Your aid do we seek. / Show us ...

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ʻId (Feast Day) Quatrain

ʻId (Feast Day) Quatrain

This rubaʻi (iambic pentameter quatrain) is written in black nastaʻliq and surrounded by cloud bands on a gold background. It is not signed or dated, although the script suggests that it was executed in Persia (Iran) sometime in the 16th or 17th centuries. Provided with several monochromatic frames, the text page is pasted to a pink paper strengthened with cardboard. In the top-left corner of the text panel an invocation to God initiates the poem with the expression “huwa al-muʻizz” (He is the Glorified). Then follows the quatrain, which reads ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Note about the Construction of a “Takiyah-khanah”

Note about the Construction of a “Takiyah-khanah”

This large piece of paper, constructed of a number of separate sheets pasted together, includes four lines of writing in nastaʻliq script. At the top appears the number 786, which in the abjad (letter number) system is equivalent to sum total of the letters appearing in the bismillah (in the name of God). In other words, the number 786 at the top of the page functions as an initial “In praise of God, the Merciful, the Beneficent,” immediately before the text's main contents. The four lines immediately below state ...

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Shiʻi Invocation to a Ruler

Shiʻi Invocation to a Ruler

This calligraphic fragment contains a Shiʻi praise to a ruler by comparing him to the figure of ʻAli, son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad, and his famous double-edged sword, Dhu al-Fiqar (“Cleaver of the Spine”): “Oh Dignity of Haydar, it shows on your forehead, / Your name is like Dhu al-Fiqar in battle.” The two verses thus compare the ruler to ʻAli, the Haydar Allah (Lion of God), and liken his name to ʻAli’s victorious sword. The text is written in black nastaʻliq on a beige paper framed by a light-brown ...

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ʻId (Feast Day) Prayer for Good Fortune

ʻId (Feast Day) Prayer for Good Fortune

This calligraphic fragment includes two bayts (verses) wishing its owner prosperity and happiness on the occasion of an ʻid. “It is ʻid, congratulations on the new celebration / May the crown of fortune be your summit / May the Chapters of Victory and Blessing / Be your protectors and supporters in both worlds.” In this prayer, which probably was written for the celebration of the ʻId-i Nawruz (New Year), a patron is wished protection through two Qurʼanic chapters, namely Surat al-Fath (Victory, Qurʼan 48) and Surat Tabarak (Blessing), otherwise known as Surat al-Mulk ...

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The Guide to Benevolent Deeds and Rising Lights in the Prayers on the Chosen Prophet

The Guide to Benevolent Deeds and Rising Lights in the Prayers on the Chosen Prophet

This illuminated manuscript is a copy of Dalā’il al-khayrāt (Collection of prayers for the Prophet Muhammad), which was composed by Muḥammad ibn Sulayman al-Jazūlī (died 870 AH [1465 AD]). It was written in black Naskh script in the 11th century AH (17th century AD) in Ottoman Turkey. The prayers ask for blessings for the Prophet, and the individual reciting the prayers would also receive God’s blessings. Like many copies of this text, this manuscript includes additional devotional material, such as lists of al-asma al-sharifa (the noble names). It ...

Contributed by Walters Art Museum

The Incoherence of Philosophers

The Incoherence of Philosophers

Abu-Hamid Al-Ghazali (also known by the Latinized version of his name, Algazel, 1058–1111 AD, 450–505 AH) was born into a modest family in Tus, Khorasan, in present-day Iran. He went on to become one of the most prominent Sunni religious scholars of all time. His main fields were jurisprudence, philosophy, theology, and mysticism. Tahafut al-falasifa (The incoherence of the philosophers) is one of his major works. In this book, he opines that philosophers, both Greek and Muslim, should not try to prove metaphysical knowledge through logic, as the ...

Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina

13th-Century Qurʼan from Seville

13th-Century Qurʼan from Seville

This early 13th-century manuscript is among the very few surviving dated Qurʼans from Islamic Spain. Completed in Seville in 1226 AD (624 AH), it was rescued from destruction during the Reconquista (reconquest) by Muslim refugees who fled Spain for North Africa. In 1535, when the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (1500–58) conquered Tunis in an expedition against the Barbary pirates, his troops seized the Qurʼan and took it back to Europe. The manuscript subsequently came into possession of Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter (1506–57), a diplomat and orientalist whose library ...

Contributed by Bavarian State Library

Certificate of Emancipation for Female Slave

Certificate of Emancipation for Female Slave

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. “‘Itq Raqīqah” (Certificate of emancipation for female slave) gives a detailed physical description of a woman who is being ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

The Story of Dhu al-Qarnayn (Better Known as Alexander the Great)

The Story of Dhu al-Qarnayn (Better Known as Alexander the Great)

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. Kitab Qiṣṣat Dhū al-Qarnayn is a 12th-century rendition of the Alexander romance (legends about the mythical exploits ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

The Desire of the Aspirant

The Desire of the Aspirant

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. In Munyat al-murīd (The desire of the aspirant), Baba ibn Ahmad al-Alawi al-Maliki al-Maghribi al-Shingiti presents an explanation of ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

Explanation of the Commentary of Ibn Zakur

Explanation of the Commentary of Ibn Zakur

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. Sharḥ ‘ala Ḥāshiyat Ibn Zakūr (Explanation of the commentary of Ibn Zakur) is by Ibrahim al-Fulani and was ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

The Prosody of Pearls that Limit the Deleterious Effects of the Abhorrent World

The Prosody of Pearls that Limit the Deleterious Effects of the Abhorrent World

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. Al-Durar al-manẓūmah fī taḍmīm al-dunyā al-muqabaḥah (The prosody of pearls that limit the deleterious effects of ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

The Healing Gifts: Commentary on a Poem Explaining the Terminology of the Hanbali Mathhab

The Healing Gifts: Commentary on a Poem Explaining the Terminology of the Hanbali Mathhab

Al-minah al-shaafiyah bi sharh nazm al-mufradat al-waafiyah (The healing gifts: commentary on a poem explaining the terminology of the Hanbali mathhab) is an exposition on the mathhab (school of religious and juridical doctrine) of Imam Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad Ibn Ḥanbal (780–855). The title refers to the gifts that cure the thirst for knowledge, and the commentary expounds on the 1,000-line poem by Shams ad-Din Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Ahmed ibn Abdul Hadi al-Maqdisi (died circa 1343). The work presented here is by Mansoor ibn Yousuf ibn Salahuddeen ibn ...

Contributed by King Abdulaziz University Library

The Qurʼan in the Earliest Printed Version, with the Life and Teachings of Muhammad and Other Works

The Qurʼan in the Earliest Printed Version, with the Life and Teachings of Muhammad and Other Works

This volume contains the first-ever printing of the Qurʼan, presented in the 12th-century Latin translation by the English scholar Robert of Ketton. This translation was commissioned by Abbot Peter the Venerable of the monastery of Cluny in France, who was also responsible for monasteries in Spain. Islam was still a strong presence in Spain in the 1300s, although Muslim control of the Iberian Peninsula was waning. When this edition was printed 400 years later, Islam was again a pressing concern for Christian authorities: in 1529 the Ottoman Turkish sultan, Suleiman ...

Contributed by Hill Museum & Manuscript Library

The Supreme Method and the Pure Source on the Rules of Notarization

The Supreme Method and the Pure Source on the Rules of Notarization

Aḥmad ibn Yaḥyá al-Wansharīsī (1430 or 1431–1508) was a jurist and scholar of the Maliki school of Islamic jurisprudence. He was born in Jabal Wansharīs, but his family moved when he was a child to nearby Tilimcen in present-day western Algeria, where he studied and later taught Maliki law. His relationship with Tilimcen ruler Sultan Muhammad IV of the Banu Abd al-Wad dynasty soured under circumstances that are unclear, and he consequently fled to Fez, Morocco. With the help of his former student Muhammad ibn al-Gardīs, al-Wansharīsī was able ...

Contributed by King Abdulaziz University Library

Treatise on Holy War

Treatise on Holy War

The first Persian printing press in Iran was established in 1816 in Tabriz, and the first book published by the press was Jihādīyyah (Treatise on holy war), written by Abu al-Qasim ibn 'Isá Qa'im'maqam Farahani (circa 1779–1835), the prime minister of Persia at that time. During the reign of King Fath Ali Shah (1772–1834, reigned 1797–1834), while the Qajar government was absorbed with managing domestic turmoil, rival European colonial powers sought to establish themselves in the region. The British competed for influence in the south ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of the Islamic Republic of Iran

The Perfect Pearl of Wonders and the Precious Pearl of Extraordinary Things

The Perfect Pearl of Wonders and the Precious Pearl of Extraordinary Things

Kharīdat al-ʻAjā’ib wa Farīdat al-Gharā’ib (The perfect pearl of wonders and the precious pearl of extraordinary things) by Sirāj al-Dīn Abū Ḥafṣ ʿUmar Ibn al-Wardī (died 1457) is a compilation of texts on geography, natural history, and other subjects. The geographical texts constitute the bulk of the work. They list and describe different places, with emphasis on the Middle East and North Africa, although sections on China and Europe also are included. The geographical information presented varies greatly in quality, even for those regions that are central to ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

al-Bukhari's Collection of Authentic Hadith, Followed by a Qurʼanic Exegesis in the Fourth Volume

al-Bukhari's Collection of Authentic Hadith, Followed by a Qurʼanic Exegesis in the Fourth Volume

Muhammad ibn Isma‘il al-Bukhari (810–70) was born in Bukhara, in present-day Uzbekistan, and died in Khartank, near Samarkand. He is considered by Sunni Muslims to be the most authoritative collector of hadiths—reports of statements or deeds attributed to the Prophet Muhammad. This work, completed in 846, is al-Bukhari’s best-known collection. It was the first work of its kind exclusively dedicated to hadiths, and is the most authoritative of the so-called Six Books—canonical collections that were written down some 200 years after the death of Prophet ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Five Surahs that Save

The Five Surahs that Save

This 15th century manuscript comprises five surahs (chapters) of the Qurʼan: Yāsīn (Yā Sīn, chapter 36), al-Fatḥ (The conquest, chapter 48), al-Wāqiʻah (The inevitable, chapter 56), al-Mulk (The sovereignty, chapter 67), and al-Nabā (The tidings, chapter 78). It is not fully understood why these surahs in particular are put together. They do not follow this order in the Qurʼan, and the manuscript appears to be complete and in excellent shape. It is, therefore, plausible to assume that this is not an arbitrary collection of Qurʼanic fragments that were bound together ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Crown Jewel

The Crown Jewel

This manuscript of Durrat al-tāj (The crown jewel) is a Shiite prayer book, consisting of prayers to be said when making a visitation to the tomb of Caliph ʻAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib (circa 601−61). ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib is one of the most revered religious and holy figures of Islam. His honorary name, Amīr al-Mu‘minīn, translates from Persian as the “prince of the believers.” Written works by ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib and sayings attributed to him are sacred to the Shiite faithful, particularly among Persian speakers. The ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Demonstration of the Truth

Demonstration of the Truth

Izhar al-Haqq (Demonstration of the truth) is a work of Islamic apologetics that broke new ground in the Muslim approach to the Bible and to Christian doctrine. Written by Indian scholar Rahmatullah al-Dihlawi (circa 1817−91), it received the approbation of the Ottoman sultan, Abdülaziz (reigned 1861−76). It was printed in 1867 at the imperial press in Istanbul for distribution among Arabic-speaking Muslims. Rahmatullah based his innovative approach on analysis of European Protestant historical or higher criticism, i.e., on reinterpretations and reformulations of biblical historiography made by European ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

The Superabundance of the Commendable and the Reinforcement of the Yet-More Commendable: Poetry Collection

The Superabundance of the Commendable and the Reinforcement of the Yet-More Commendable: Poetry Collection

This diwan, Al-Faydh al- Muhammadi wa-al-Madad al-Ahmadi wa Huwa Diwan (The superabundance of the commendable and the reinforcement of the yet-more commendable: Poetry collection), is a book of poems, mostly in praise of the Prophet Muhammad or in supplication of his blessing and assistance. Some of the verses vary from this theme, for example, poetic prayers addressing Ahmad al-Rifa’i, founder of the famous Sufi order of which the author, Abū al-Hudá al-Ṣayyādī, was a prominent (and controversial) leader. Abu al-Huda was a prolific writer who rose from humble origins ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

The Collected Works of Riyazi

The Collected Works of Riyazi

Kullīyāt-i Riyāz̤ī (Riyazi’s book, usually known in English as the Collected Works of Ryazi) is a literary-historical work written in a mixture of prose and verse styles and published in a lithographic version in Mashhad, Iran, in 1906. It chronicles social, cultural, and political events taking place in the second-half of the 19th century in Afghanistan and Persia, especially during the reigns of Afghan ruler ʻAbd al-Rahman Khan (1880−1901) and his Persian counterpart, Mozaffar al-Din Shah Qajar (1896−1907). The author, Muhammad Yusuf Riyazi Haravi, was from ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Dīvān-i of the Chain of Gold

Dīvān-i of the Chain of Gold

Dīvān-i Silsilah va al-Ẕahab (literally, The collection book of the chain of gold) is a work of Persian literature in verse. It forms volume one of a seven-volume literary collection of Mowlana Nur al-Din Abd al-Rahman Jami (1414−92), the famous Persian scholar, poet, and Sufi. The entire collection is known as Haft awrang (The seven thrones) and was one of Jami’s first major works. Volume one is the longest volume, composed sometime between 1468 and 1486. This manuscript copy seems incomplete, as the final narrative of verses on ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Most Truthful Method of Distinguishing the Ibadites from the Kharijites and The Gift from Heaven on the Judgment of Shedding Blood

The Most Truthful Method of Distinguishing the Ibadites from the Kharijites and The Gift from Heaven on the Judgment of Shedding Blood

Sālim ibn Ḥammūd ibn Shāmis al-Siyābī (1908−93) was an Omani scholar, poet, historian, and judge. He was born in Ghāla, in the state of Bawshār in eastern Oman. A self-taught scholar, al-Siyābī memorized the Qur’an at age seven and went on to study Arabic language classics, including Ibn Malik’s Alfiyah, a 1,000-line poem about Arabic grammar rules. Al-Siyābī was also a prolific writer, and was the author of as many as 84 works, according to Sultān ibn Mubārak al-Shaybānī, who categorized al-Siyābī’s body of work ...

Contributed by Sultan Qaboos University Library

Fundamentals and Rules by Imam al-Nawawi

Fundamentals and Rules by Imam al-Nawawi

This short manuscript, Usul wa Dawabit lil-Imam al-Nawawi (Fundamentals and rules by Imam al-Nawawi), by the leading Shafi’i jurist known as al-Nawawi (1233−77), outlines the principles to be applied and the procedures to be used in personal conduct and ritual. The tract is divided into several parts. The first defines the limits of human action and argues against the “exaggerations” of the Mu’tazalite school of philosophy and its deviance from text-based orthodoxy. The work then covers rules for everyday living, including business transactions, marriage contracts, and gender ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of Egypt

Treatise and Notes on Prayers

Treatise and Notes on Prayers

This manuscript treats prayers used universally by Muslims. The first section covers al-hamdu lil-Allah,recited on many occasions when recalling God’s grace for some benefaction, such as safe arrival from a journey. The phrase literally means “Praise be to God,” and is used in various forms by people of all faiths. After discussing meaning and usage in light of grammarians Sibawayh and Khalil ibn Ahmad, eighth-century pioneers of Arabic linguistics, the author distinguishes between “proper” use and everyday speech. The work includes discussion of mutaradifat (synonyms) of praise, such ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of Egypt

Memorandum on the Question Posed by the Jew about Divine Fate (Zikr Su’al al-Yahudi min al-Qadha’ wa-al-Qadr)

Memorandum on the Question Posed by the Jew about Divine Fate (Zikr Su’al al-Yahudi min al-Qadha’ wa-al-Qadr)

This short manuscript contains manzumah (replies in verse) to questions about fate, destiny, and predestination. The work is anonymous. This eternally vexed area in metaphysics was said to have been raised by an unnamed Jewish religious scholar of predestinationist tendencies. The author of this work sets out arguments against strict determinism by those he calls ahl al-sunnah (orthodox thinkers). He brings to bear in rebuttal verses and quotations from several sources, two in particular, which he quotes at length. The first of them is by Ibn Lubb al-Gharnati and is ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of Egypt

Travels in Arabia: Comprehending an Account of those Territories in Hedjaz which the Mohammedans Regard as Sacred

Travels in Arabia: Comprehending an Account of those Territories in Hedjaz which the Mohammedans Regard as Sacred

John Lewis Burckhardt (1784−1817) was born Johann Ludwig Burckhardt in Lausanne, Switzerland. His accounts of his travels in the Middle East in the early 19th century are among the earliest modern European descriptions of Syria, Arabia, Egypt, and Sudan. Upon finishing university studies in Switzerland, he went to England to enroll in Cambridge University, where he studied Arabic and Islam in order to prepare himself for a career as an explorer-adventurer. As his acquaintance Muhammad ‘Ali Basha, ruler of Egypt, said of his adventurism, he possessed the “travelling madness ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

Commentary on the Mysteries of Revelation, the Perfection of Locution, and Comprehensive Interpretation

Commentary on the Mysteries of Revelation, the Perfection of Locution, and Comprehensive Interpretation

Al-Kashshāf (Commentary) is among the most widely known tafsirs (explications or exegeses) of the Qurʼan. Written in 12th-century Persia by Mahmud ibn ʻUmar Zamakhshari, it remains the object of study and debate among exegetes, who argue against its Mu’tazilite rationalism, even as they recognize its deep learning and linguistic sophistication. The work is taught, if not admired, by all the Sunni and Shia schools of interpretation. Modern scholar Kifayat Ullah states that “no other work in the history of tafsir has been commented on in the forms of glosses ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

Arab Art as Seen Through the Monuments of Cairo: From the Seventh Century to the End of the 18th

Arab Art as Seen Through the Monuments of Cairo: From the Seventh Century to the End of the 18th

L'art arabe d'après les monuments du Kaire: depuis le VIIe siècle jusqu'à la fin du XVIIIe(Arab art as seen through the monuments of Cairo: From the seventh century to the end of the 18th) is an immense, sumptuously produced work that illustrates the richness of Islamic art and architecture as seen in the streets, buildings, monuments, decorative arts, and books and manuscripts of the city of Cairo. It was produced by Achille-Constant-Théodore-Émile Prisse d’Avennes, who is said to have supervised the printing of the work ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

The Luminance of Explication and Mysteries of Proof in the Understanding of the Paradigms of the Science of Weights and Measures. Part One

The Luminance of Explication and Mysteries of Proof in the Understanding of the Paradigms of the Science of Weights and Measures. Part One

This manuscript consists of the first part of Anwār al-bayān wa asrār al-burhān fī fahm awzān ʻilm al-mīzān (The luminance of explication and mysteries of proof in the understanding of the paradigms of the science of weights and measures). It was composed by the Persian alchemist Aidamur ibn ʻAli ibn Aidamur al-Jaldaki (also seen as al-Gildaki, died circa 1342). The author's name indicates that he was born in Jaldak, in present-day Afghanistan. Over the course of 17 years, al-Jaldaki traveled to Iraq, Asia Minor, West Africa, Egypt, Yemen, Hejaz ...

Contributed by Wellcome Library

The Book of Instant Recovery

The Book of Instant Recovery

Kitāb burʼ al-sāʻa (The book of instant recovery) is a short medical tract by the famous Islamic scientist and physician Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Zakariya Razi (died circa 925). The work consists of 24 short sections, which list the remedies for common afflictions. The work includes sections on al-udāʻ(headaches), wajʻ al-asnān (toothache), and al-iʻyā wa al-taʻab (exhaustion). The colophon lists the scribe’s name as Ghulam Muhammad Pursururi and the completion date for the manuscript as Dhu Qa’da 17, 1173 AH (July 1, 1760). Based on ...

Contributed by Wellcome Library

Completing the Narrative on the History of the Afghans

Completing the Narrative on the History of the Afghans

Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (1838–97) was a pan-Islamic thinker, political activist, and journalist, who sought to revive Islamic thought and liberate the Muslim world from Western influence. Many aspects of his life and his background remain unknown or controversial, including his birthplace, his religious affiliation, and the cause of his death. He was likely born in Asadabad, near present-day Hamadan, Iran. His better known history begins when he was 18, with a one-year stay in India that coincided with the Sepoy Mutiny of 1857‒59. In what would become a ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Countries and Tribes of the Persian Gulf

The Countries and Tribes of the Persian Gulf

The Countries and Tribes of the Persian Gulf is a collection of the notes of S.B. Miles, longtime British official in the Persian Gulf generally and Oman in particular. They were compiled and published posthumously, first in 1919, and reprinted several times later. This account of Oman’s political history is still widely consulted and quoted. Miles covers pre-Islamic history, pointing out that from the very earliest times the inhabitants were masters of maritime commerce. Trade included slaves, spices, gold, precious stones, and textiles from Asia and Africa. Miles ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Traditional Arab Bedouin Life Described by the Sources

Traditional Arab Bedouin Life Described by the Sources

Georg Jacob (1862‒1937) was a German Orientalist and scholar of Islam. He studied Arabic geography and taught at the universities of Erlangen, Kiel, and Halle. Jacob is considered to be the founder of modern Turcology in Germany. He was the first translator and publisher of modern Turkish literature in the German-speaking countries. Through his editorship of the Türkische Bibliothek (Turkish Library), he managed to publish many works during the World War I years. Jacob is also credited with drawing the attention of Western scholars to the puppet-theater works of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Attraction of Hearts to the House of the Beloved

The Attraction of Hearts to the House of the Beloved

Jaz̲b al-qulūb ilá diyār al-maḥbūb (The attraction of hearts to the house of the beloved) by ʻAbd al-Haqq ibn Sayf al-Din Dihlavi (1551–1642) is a work in 17 chapters on the history and lore of the city of Medina. Surpassed only by Mecca in its importance to Muslims, Medina houses the tombs of the Prophet Muhammad and some of his close companions. The Hegira (or Hejira, the migration of Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina, then known as Yathrib) in 622 was a pivotal moment in ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Afghan Penal Code of 1924 with the 1925 Amendment. Translated from Persian, with a General Introduction to the Afghan Penal Legislation

Afghan Penal Code of 1924 with the 1925 Amendment. Translated from Persian, with a General Introduction to the Afghan Penal Legislation

Afghanische Strafgesetzbuch vom Jahre 1924 (Afghan Penal Code of 1924) is a translation from Persian of the Afghan Penal Code of that year, with its 1925 amendments. The translation is by Sebastian Beck (1878‒1951), a German scholar of the Near East who was active during the Nazi era and was the author of textbooks for Germans learning Persian. The booklet is comprised of three parts: a general introduction by Beck on the society and the legislative process in Afghanistan; an appendix covering 19 issues contested by the nation’s ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Creation of the Universe

Creation of the Universe

Āfarīnish-i Dunyā (Creation of the universe) is a book about cosmogony. It describes and compares several cultural, religious, and scientific narratives about the origins of the universe. The book is a translation into Tajik Persian from a Tatari Turkic language (most probably from Azari), and it was published by the Tajik government press in Tashkent and Stalinabad (present-day Dushanbe) in 1929. The translator is identified as ʻAbd Allah Shinasi, about whom nothing else is known. The book is organized in three sections. Section one discusses and criticizes Judaic, Islamic, and ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

"Munajat" of 'Abdallah Ansari 

This calligraphic fragment includes a maxim drawn from the Munajat (Supplications) of the great Persian mystic and scholar Khwajah 'Abdallah Ansari (died 1088). The two lines describe the benefits of prayer and generosity. The two lines of text are executed in black nasta'liq script on beige paper and framed by delicate cloud bands on a gold illuminated background. The text panel is framed by a variety of borders and pasted to a sheet of purple paper decorated with gold interlacing flower motifs. Between and below the two main lines ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Safinah Fragment

Safinah Fragment 

This calligraphic fragment is the first page of an album in a longitudinal shape (safinah). At the top are a fine illuminated panel and finial (sarloh) with gold and blue flower and vine motifs. In the upper and lower corners, two gold and blue illuminated triangles (or thumb pieces) fill the spaces between the rectangular frame and the diagonal lines of text. The text is written in black nasta'liq on beige paper. It includes three bayts (verses) praising God and describing humans' inability to comprehend His power: "Praise ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Eulogy to a Ruler

Eulogy to a Ruler 

This calligraphic fragment includes a central panel with a eulogy to a king written in the "hanging" ta'liqscript. Except for one line in black ink, all other horizontal and diagonal lines are written in white and outlined in black. Above the text panel appears, divided into two columns, a bayt (verse) by the great Persian poet Niẓāmī Ganjavī (died 1202 or 1203) about the power of miracles. The bayt is in black nasta'liq script on beige paper. Around the text panel is a blue border inscribed with ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Ghazals of Asifi

Ghazals of Asifi 

This calligraphic fragment includes a variety of ghazals (lyric poems) from the Compendium of Poems(Divan) of the Persian poet Asifi. A student of the famous poet Jami (died 1492 [897 AH]) in Herat (present-day Afghanistan), Asifi remained in the Timurid capital city until his death (1517 [923 AH]), even during and after the Uzbek invasions. These particular verses on the fragment's recto and verso portray a lover's madness and his complaints about the pains of separation from the object of his affection. At the end of the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Black Practice

Black Practice 

This calligraphic sheet includes a number of diagonal words and letters used in combinations facing upwards and downwards on the folio. The common Persian cursive script nasta'liq is favored over the more "broken" shikastah script. These sheets--known as siyah mashq (literally “black practice”) in Persian--were entirely covered with writing as a means of practicing calligraphy and conserving paper. In time, they became collectible items and thus were signed and dated (this fragment, however, does not appear to be signed or dated). Many fragments such as this one were given ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Prayers for Safety and Success

Prayers for Safety and Success 

This calligraphic fragment includes verses in Persian praying for the patron's personal well-being and the prosperity of his kingdom. The verses read: "May the world be (your) fortune and the firmament (your) friend / May the World-Creator (God) protect (you) / May all your works be successful / May God of the World look after you / May your heart and your kingdom be collected and well-frequented / May division stay far away from your realm." The verses are executed in black nasta'liq script on beige paper. They are framed by cloud bands ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Seductiveness of the World

The Seductiveness of the World

This calligraphic panel includes three rubā'iyāt (iambic pentameter quatrains) in nasta'liq script on beige or blue papers cut out and pasted onto a sheet from a muraqqa' (album) of calligraphies. The quatrain in the upper-left panel, executed in black on a cream-colored sheet decorated with vine motifs painted in gold, reads: “Everyone whose heart is seduced by the world / Avoid (him) because of the pride of his ignorance / Grab the hem of that (person) who, because of his greatness, / Has left behind the world and its dwellers.” The ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses 

This eighth century calligraphic fragment from the collections of the Library of Congress is most likely the oldest Islamic text in North America, one that could have been touched by the youngest companions of the Prophet Muhammad. The fragment includes verses 53-54 of the 34th chapter of the Qurʼan entitled Surat Saba' (Sheba), as well as the first ten verses of the 35th chapter of the Qurʼan entitled Surat al-Fatir (The originator). Surat al-Fatir is an early Meccan surah that deals with the mystery of creation and angels. A verse ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Understanding the Truth, Issue 1, January 1, 1918

Understanding the Truth, Issue 1, January 1, 1918

Têgeyştinî Rastî (Understanding the truth) was a semiweekly newspaper published by the command of the British army in Iraq in 1918–19. At the time, Britain was at war with the Ottoman Empire, which had ruled Iraq since the 16th century. When British forces began advancing north toward the Iraqi Kurdistan region in the spring of 1918, the paper became the mouthpiece of the British Empire, propagandizing in support of British positions when dealing with political, social, and cultural issues. The paper sold for one ana, or four fils, a ...

Contributed by Iraqi National Library and Archives

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Plan, Elevation, and Sections

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Plan, Elevation, and Sections

This plan, elevation and sections of the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Detail of the Upper Section of the Arched-Panel Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Detail of the Upper Section of the Arched-Panel Niche

This photograph of facade decoration from an unidentified mausoleum in the northern cluster of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis (Samarkand, Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamicarchitecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Of particular ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Inscriptions around the Frieze of the Entire Front

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Inscriptions around the Frieze of the Entire Front

This photograph of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for "tomb of the ruler"). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to commemorate the death ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan. View of the Southern Facade of the Mausoleum

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan. View of the Southern Facade of the Mausoleum

This photograph of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for "tomb of the ruler"). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to commemorate the death ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Emir Timur Kuragan. View of the Northwest Facade of the Mausoleum

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Emir Timur Kuragan. View of the Northwest Facade of the Mausoleum

This magnificent photograph of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for "tomb of the ruler"). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to commemorate the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan. View of the Western Facade of the Mausoleum

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan. View of the Western Facade of the Mausoleum

This photograph of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for "tomb of the ruler"). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to commemorate the death ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Sheikh Burkhaneddin Kilich. Rukhabad. General View

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Sheikh Burkhaneddin Kilich. Rukhabad. General View

This photograph of the Rukhabad mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. In the center of this view is the mausoleum known as Rukhabad (“dwelling of the soul”), a centralized domed structure probably built in the 1380s for the sage and ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Section of a Column on the Facade of the Main Arch

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Section of a Column on the Facade of the Main Arch

This photograph of a detail of the entrance structure at the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 with the spoils of ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Section of a Column on the Main Arch

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Section of a Column on the Main Arch

This photograph of a detail of the entrance structure at the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 with the spoils of ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Minaret on the Northwest Corner

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Minaret on the Northwest Corner

This photograph of the northwest minaret at the Bibi Khanym Mosque ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 with the spoils of Timur’s ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. General View of the Madrasah from the Southeast

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. General View of the Madrasah from the Southeast

This photograph of the Bibi Khanym Mosque ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 with the spoils of Timur’s victorious campaign in India ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque. Column Base

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque. Column Base

This photograph of a ceramic column at the main mosque of the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 with the spoils ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque

This photograph of a ceramic panel on the facade of the main mosque at the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque. Section (Pillar) of a Column

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque. Section (Pillar) of a Column

This photograph of a ceramic detail at the main mosque of the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 with the spoils ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Inscription on the Left Panel of the Entry Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Inscription on the Left Panel of the Entry Niche

This photograph of a detail of the main mosque at the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 with the spoils of ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Inscription on the Middle Section of the Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Inscription on the Middle Section of the Niche

This photograph of the main mosque at the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 with the spoils of Timur’s campaign ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). View of the Main Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). View of the Main Facade

This photograph of the main mosque at the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 with the spoils of Timur’s campaign ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). View of a Partially Damaged Cupola

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). View of a Partially Damaged Cupola

This photograph of the dome of the main mosque at the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 with the spoils of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque. Inscription on the Anterior of the Marble Reading-Stand

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque. Inscription on the Anterior of the Marble Reading-Stand

This photograph of the anterior triangular side of the marble Qurʼan holder at the main mosque of the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque. Inscription on the Anterior of the Marble Reading-Stand

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque. Inscription on the Anterior of the Marble Reading-Stand

This photograph of an anterior triangular side of the marble Qurʼan holder at the main mosque of the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque. Inscription on the Posterior of the Marble Reading-Stand

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque. Inscription on the Posterior of the Marble Reading-Stand

This photograph of a posterior triangular side of the marble Qurʼan holder at the main mosque of the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque. Inscription on the Posterior of the Marble Reading-Stand

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque. Inscription on the Posterior of the Marble Reading-Stand

This photograph of a posterior triangular side of the marble Qurʼan holder at the main mosque of the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque. One of the Inscriptions on the Main Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque. One of the Inscriptions on the Main Niche

This photograph of a minaret detail at the main mosque of the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 with the spoils ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. View of the Main Entry from the Exterior

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. View of the Main Entry from the Exterior

This photograph of the Bibi Khanym entrance structure in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 with the spoils of Timur’s campaign in India, the ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. View of the Main Entry from the Interior

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. View of the Main Entry from the Interior

This photograph of the ruins of the Bibi Khanym entrance structure in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 with the spoils of Timur’s victorious ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. View of a Southern Classroom

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. View of a Southern Classroom

This photograph of the south mosque at the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 with the spoils of Timur’s campaign ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. View of a Northern Classroom

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. View of a Northern Classroom

This photograph of the north mosque at the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 with the spoils of Timur’s campaign ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Gate on the Main Entrance

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Gate on the Main Entrance

This photograph of a gate at the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 with the spoils of Timur’s campaign in ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Inscriptions Around the Inner Main Niche in Front of the Door from Outside

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Inscriptions Around the Inner Main Niche in Front of the Door from Outside

This photograph of the Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Located next to the Khodzha Akhrar shrine, this madrasah(religious school) was completed in 1631 by Nadir Divan-Begi, vizier and uncle of the Bukharan ruler Imam-Quli Khan. The ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi, Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). End

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi, Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). End

This photograph of the mosque at the Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Located next to the Khodzha Akhrar shrine, this madrasah (religious school) was completed in 1631 by Nadir Divan-Begi, vizier to the Bukharan ruler Imam-Quli Khan ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi, Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Beginning

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi, Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Beginning

This photograph of the mosque at the Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Located next to the Khodzha Akhrar shrine, this madrasah (religious school) was completed in 1631 by Nadir Divan-Begi, vizier to the Bukharan ruler Imam-Quli Khan ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi, Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Middle

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi, Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Middle

This photograph of the mosque at the Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Located next to the Khodzha Akhrar shrine, this madrasah (religious school) was completed in 1631 by Nadir Divan-Begi, vizier to the Bukharan ruler Imam-Quli Khan ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi, Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Entrance to the Mosque

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi, Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Entrance to the Mosque

This photograph of the Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Located next to the Khodzha Akhrar shrine, this madrasah(religious school) was completed in 1631 by Nadir Divan-Begi, vizier of the Bukharan ruler Imam-Quli Khan. The madrasah was ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Western Side). Inscription on the Left Side of the Main Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Western Side). Inscription on the Left Side of the Main Niche

This photograph of the interior courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Western Side). Inscription on the Right Side of the Main Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Western Side). Inscription on the Right Side of the Main Niche

This photograph of the interior courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Tillia Kari. Inner Courtyard (Southern Side). Upper Part of the Minaret

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Tillia Kari. Inner Courtyard (Southern Side). Upper Part of the Minaret

This photograph of a minaret on the south side of the Tillia Kari Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern)

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern)

This photograph of the main facade of the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Inscription in the Main Niche in Its Upper Part. End

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Inscription in the Main Niche in Its Upper Part. End

This photograph of ceramic panels at the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Inscription in the Main Niche in Its Upper Part. Right Side

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Inscription in the Main Niche in Its Upper Part. Right Side

This photograph of ceramic panels at the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Inscription inside the Niche to the Left of a Window

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Inscription inside the Niche to the Left of a Window

This photograph of ceramic panels at the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Inscription in the Main Niche in Its Upper Part. Middle

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Inscription in the Main Niche in Its Upper Part. Middle

This photograph of the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of three major examples ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Inscription on the Left Side of the Marble Reading-Stand (Lau)

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Inscription on the Left Side of the Marble Reading-Stand (Lau)

This photograph of a part of the marble Qurʼan holder at the main mosque of the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Inscription on the Left Side of the Marble Reading-Stand (Lau)

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Inscription on the Left Side of the Marble Reading-Stand (Lau)

This photograph of a part of the marble Qurʼan holder at the main mosque of the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Inscription on the Left Side of the Marble Reading-Stand (Lau)

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Inscription on the Left Side of the Marble Reading-Stand (Lau)

This photograph of a part of the marble Qurʼan holder at the main mosque of the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Inscription on the Left Side of the Marble Reading-Stand (Lau)

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Inscription on the Left Side of the Marble Reading-Stand (Lau)

This photograph of a part of the marble Qurʼan holder at the main mosque of the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Shir Dar Madrasah. Inscriptions along the Walls and above the Foundation

Antiquities of Samarkand. Shir Dar Madrasah. Inscriptions along the Walls and above the Foundation

This photograph of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of three major examples ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Shir Dar Madrasah. Inscriptions in the Main Niche of the Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Shir Dar Madrasah. Inscriptions in the Main Niche of the Facade

This photograph of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of three major examples ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Tillia Kari. Main Facade (Southern). Inscription on One of the Panels of the Main Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Tillia Kari. Main Facade (Southern). Inscription on One of the Panels of the Main Niche

This photograph of a detail from the main entrance to the Tillia Kari Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of the conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Tillia Kari. Inner Courtyard (Western Side). Section of a Column (Pillar)

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Tillia Kari. Inner Courtyard (Western Side). Section of a Column (Pillar)

This photograph of a facade detail in the courtyard of the Tillia Kari Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Tillia Kari. Inner Courtyard (Western Side). Entrance to the Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque)

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Tillia Kari. Inner Courtyard (Western Side). Entrance to the Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque)

This photograph of the mosque at the Tillia Kari Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern). Base

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern). Base

This photograph of a detail from the east facade of the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern). Base

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern). Base

This photograph of a detail from the east facade of the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern). Door Leading to the Inner Courtyard

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern). Door Leading to the Inner Courtyard

This photograph of a door leading to the inner courtyard of the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern). Inscription above the Entry to the Inner Courtyard

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern). Inscription above the Entry to the Inner Courtyard

This photograph of a detail of the east facade of the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Entrance to the Congregational Mosque

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Entrance to the Congregational Mosque

This photograph of the mosque at the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Inner Courtyard (Northern Side). Column Base at the Main Portal Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Inner Courtyard (Northern Side). Column Base at the Main Portal Niche

This photograph of a detail on the north side of the inner courtyard at the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Inner Courtyard (Northern Side). Section of a Column (Pillar) beside the Main Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Inner Courtyard (Northern Side). Section of a Column (Pillar) beside the Main Niche

This photograph of a detail on the north side of the inner courtyard at the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Inner Courtyard (Northern Side). Inscription along the Right Side of the Main Portal Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Inner Courtyard (Northern Side). Inscription along the Right Side of the Main Portal Niche

This photograph from the north side of the inner courtyard at the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Detail of the Smaller Niches Within Them

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Detail of the Smaller Niches Within Them

This photograph of one of the lesser iwan (vaulted hall, walled on three sides, with one end open) arches at the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamicarchitecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. View of a One-Storied Gallery Surrounding the Interior of the Courtyard

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. View of a One-Storied Gallery Surrounding the Interior of the Courtyard

This photograph of a portion of the interior courtyard at the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Section of Wall Detail

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Section of Wall Detail

This watercolor sketch shows a decorative detail from the northeast mausoleum in the northern cluster of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis (Samarkand, Uzbekistan). The sketch was included in the archeological part of Turkestan Album, a six-volume survey produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Sections of Detail on the Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Sections of Detail on the Facade

This sketch of facade decoration from an unidentified mausoleum in the northern cluster of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis (Samarkand, Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamicarchitecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Of particular ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Plan, Elevation, and Sections

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Plan, Elevation, and Sections

This plan, section, and elevation of the Bibi Khanym Mosque in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 with the spoils of Timur’s victorious campaign ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Turkestan Album, Archaeological Part

Turkestan Album, Archaeological Part

This work is the “Archaeological Part” of the Turkestan Album, which contains a detailed visual record of the Islamic architecture of Samarkand as it appeared shortly after the Russian conquest in the 1860s. The mid-to-late 19th century was when the Russian Empire expanded into Central Asia, annexing territories located in present-day Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan. Russian armies occupied Tashkent in 1865 and Samarkand in 1868. Tsar Alexander II approved the establishment of the governor-generalship of Russian Turkestan in 1867. General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Life of Animals

Life of Animals

This manuscript is a copy of the long version of al-Damīrī’s Hayāt al-hayawān (Life of animals), an encyclopedic work that was widely disseminated in the Islamic world in three versions or recensions—long, intermediate, and short. Muhammad ibn Musā ibn Isā Kamāl al-Din Ibn Ilyās ibn Abd-Allāh al-Damīrī (circa 1342–1405) was an Egyptian tailor who became an author and scholar. Building upon earlier work on animals by Jāhith (780–868), al-Damiri combined the Arabic and Persian literary tradition of animal tales with the legacy of Greece and Rome ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of Egypt

The Book of Proof of the Secrets of the Science of Weights and Measures (Part 3)

The Book of Proof of the Secrets of the Science of Weights and Measures (Part 3)

This manuscript consists of a section of Kitāb al-burhān fī asrār ‘ilm al-mīzān (Book of proof of the secrets of the science of the weights and measures) by the Persian alchemist Aydamur ibn ´Alī ibn Aydamur al-Gildakī (also seen as al-Jaldakī, died circa 1342). His name indicates that he was born in Jaldak, in present-day Afghanistan. Over the course of 17 years, al-Gildakī  traveled to Iraq, Asia Minor, West Africa, Egypt, Yemen, Hejaz, and Syria. These journeys are recounted in another of his works, Kitāb nihāyat al-ṭalab fī sharḥ kitāb ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of Egypt

Letters by ‘Alī Ḥamdānī

Letters by ‘Alī Ḥamdānī

Maktūbāt-i Sayyid ‘Alī Ḥamdānī (Letters by Ali Hamdani) is a collection letters by the famous Persian scholar, saint, and preacher Sayyid ‘Alī Ḥamdānī (1314–85 A.D.; A.H. 714–87). He came from Hamdan in Central Asia and traveled to Kashmir in 1372–73 A.D. to spread the message of Islam. This is one of the rarest extant manuscripts of letters from the saint to his disciples, directing them how to unravel the secrets of Islamic mysticism. In the letters, Sayyid ‘Alī Ḥamdānī quotes a number ...

Contributed by Allama Iqbal Library, University of Kashmir

Quintessence of Calculation

Quintessence of Calculation

The author of this mathematical treatise, Bahā' al-Dīn Al-‘Amilī (1547–1621), is considered one of the leading intellectuals of 17th-century Safavid Persia (present-day Iran). He was born in Baalbek (present-day Lebanon) but moved to Persia in his youth where he devoted his entire life to study. He excelled in various fields, leaving a legacy of more than 80 books on a wide variety of subjects that included theology and mysticism, astronomy, mathematics, poetry, and architecture. He wrote in both Persian and Arabic. He was the teacher of Mulla Sadra ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Illumination of Inheritance Calculation

The Illumination of Inheritance Calculation

Islamic law goes into great detail on the subject of the division of inheritances (farā'id) among heirs. For this reason, inheritances have received extensive treatment in books of fiqh (Islamic law) and been a subject of study for mathematicians as well. Qabas al-Daw' fī al-Hisāb (The illumination of inheritance calculation) was copied by its author, ‘Abd al-Raḥman ibn Aḥmad ibn 'Ali al-Ḥamidi, in this 1589 manuscript. The work, which he dedicated to the son of the Šāf‘ī jurist Šams al-Dīn Muhammad al-Bahwašī, is an example of a genre ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Commentary on

Commentary on "The Little Sparkles on the Science of Calculation"

The system of fara'iḍ (shares) for inheritances is considered to be one of the most advanced innovations introduced by Muslim conquerors in Middle Eastern and North African societies. The exact calculation of shares of inheritance is a complex chapter in Islamic law, and it is not surprising that Muslim intellectuals and scientists developed a system of mathematical tools in order to master "the science of the shares" (‘ilm al-fara'i). An important contribution to this field can be found in the work of Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad Ibn ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Book of the Delight of the Eye Regarding the Movement of the Two Luminaries

The Book of the Delight of the Eye Regarding the Movement of the Two Luminaries

Little is known about the astronomer Muḥammad ibn ʻAbd al-Qādir al-Khalīlī al-Jaʻbarī, who wrote the treatise Kitāb qurrat al-‘ayn and prepared the accompanying astronomical tables preserved in this copy. Some information about the original work can be inferred from information provided on the last page of this manuscript, where the colophonspecifies that the copy was produced in the year 932 AH (1525), based on an older, quite damaged manuscript. This information gives us a terminus ante quem (latest possible date) for the original work. The treatise also opens ...

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British Propaganda Poster Intended for Chinese Muslim Audience

British Propaganda Poster Intended for Chinese Muslim Audience

This rare World War I poster, issued by the British in China, was intended to discredit Germany among Chinese Muslims. It shows a portrait of German Imperial Governor Heinrich Schnee and a copy of a letter by him, written in German, directing the suppression of Islam in Africa. The poster also shows two photographs of Fort Moshi (in present-day Tanzania; at that time, German East Africa) where the letter was said to have been found by the British. The Chinese text of the poster explains the anti-Islamicactivities of the ...

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The Collection of Symbols: Explanation on Prevention in Matters of Guidance

The Collection of Symbols: Explanation on Prevention in Matters of Guidance

Jāmi’ al-Rumūz: Sharh Mukhtaṣar al-Wiqāya (The collection of symbols: explanation on prevention in matters of guidance) by Shams al-Dīn Muhammad al-Quhustānī (died circa 1546) is a commentary on Mukhtaṣar al-Wiqāya fi Masa‘il al-Hidaya (Brief explanation of the book on prevention in matters of guidance to the true path) by Ubayd Allāh ibn Masūd Mahbūbī, who died in 1346–47. Al-Quhustānī was a scholar of the Hanafi Madhab (one of the four Sunni schools of fiqh, or religious jurisprudence) and a mufti in Bukhara (present-day Uzbekistan). The work ...

Contributed by National Academic Library of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Astana

Detail of a Wall in Ulugh Beg (Interior). Samarkand

Detail of a Wall in Ulugh Beg (Interior). Samarkand

In the town center in Samarkand is the Registan complex, composed of three major examples of the madrasah (religious school). The oldest madrasah on Registan Square is named after the astronomer king Ulugh Beg (1393?–1449; grandson of Timur), who built it in 1417–20. During Ulugh Beg’s reign some 100 students attended this leading center of Islamic education. The ceramic panels shown here are from the courtyard niche of the great iwan arch. The delicate polychrome work includes faience tiles with intricate botanical figures. These are set within ...

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Bihari Qurʼan

Bihari Qurʼan

This folio contains, on the right side, verses 2–8 of Surat al-Kahf (The cave) of the Qurʼan and, on the left side, verses 67–70 of the Surat Bani Isra'il (The children of Israel), also known as Surat al-Isra' (The night journey). The text is in Arabic with interlinear Persian translation in red ink. The borders include a commentary in Persian, written in black ink and laid out diagonally in the margin. On the rightmost margin of the verso appears a note cross-referenced to the sixth ayah (verse ...

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Qurʼanic Verses (9:33-36)

Qurʼanic Verses (9:33-36)

The recto of this fragment contains verses 33–34 of surah (chapter) nine of the Qurʼan, al-Tawbah (The repentance), also known as Surat al-Bara'ah (The immunity) from the surah’s opening word, as it is the only surah to which the introductory bismillah (In the name of God) is not affixed. These verses speak about how men must fight against pagan enemies and uphold their faith. In the upper left corner of the folio is a hizb (section) marker, consisting of gold and blue concentric circles, blue finials on ...

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Qurʼanic Verses (44:56-59, 45:1-4)

Qurʼanic Verses (44:56-59, 45:1-4)

This Qurʼanic fragment contains the last verses (44: 56–59) of the surah (chapter) al-Dukhan (The smoke). Its verso continues with the beginning of chapter 45, al-Jāthīyah (The kneeling down). The theme of Surat al-Dukhan is how worldly pride and power fade to smoke in the face of spiritual truths and how men will meet God’s judgment in the Hereafter. The initial verses of al-Jathiyah discuss the material signs of God on earth, such as the presence of humans and animals. Below the chapter heading in gold, executed in ...

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Qurʼanic Verses (107-9, 110-112)

Qurʼanic Verses (107-9, 110-112)

This Qurʼanic fragment’s recto includes surahs (chapters) 107–9: al-Ma'un (The assistance), al-Kawthar(The abundance), and al-Kafirun (The unbelievers). The last chapters of the Qurʼan tend to be Meccan and quite short, thus several can fit onto one page. They deal with sincerity in devotion and true worship and warn of persecuting men of different faith. The chapter headings are written in thuluth script. The top heading for al-Ma'un is executed in white ink, rather than gold outlined in black, and states that it is Meccan and ...

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Qurʼan Carpet Page

Qurʼan Carpet Page

This folio contains an opening carpet page of a Qurʼan. It is the first of five folios belonging to a dispersed Qurʼan manuscript in the collections of the Library of Congress. Together with another folio, this folio constitutes the double-page illuminated frontispiece of a beautiful, albeit damaged, 14th-century Mamluk Qurʼan. This folio contains verses 76–78 of the 56th chapter of the Qurʼan, al-Waqi'ah (The inevitable), contained in the top and bottom rectangular panels of the double-page illuminated frontispiece. The next folio continues the inscription with verses 56:79 ...

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The Cow

The Cow

This folio includes, below an illuminated rectangular panel, part of the last verse of the Qurʼan's first chapter, al-Fatihah (The opening). Below the last line of al-Fatihah appears the title, executed in gold and outlined in black, of the Qurʼan's second chapter, al-Baqarah (The cow). The heading states that the chapter consists of 287 verses. After the chapter heading follows an initial bismillah (In the name of God), the mysterious letters alif and mim, and the first verse: “This is the Book; without a doubt, in it is ...

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Illuminated Frontispiece

Illuminated Frontispiece

This illuminated frontispiece is one of two pages that would have formed the opening double-page composition of a manuscript. It is possible that it belonged to a Qurʼan. The title would have appeared in the top and bottom rectangular panels. The central medallion may have contained the beginning of the first chapter of the Qurʼan, al-Fatihah (The opening). It also may have served as a space for the work’s dedication to a patron or blessings upon its owner. The illumination is typical of Qurʼan frontispieces made in Herat (present-day ...

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Qurʼanic Verses (56:77-9) on Carpet Page

Qurʼanic Verses (56:77-9) on Carpet Page

As noted in the red rectangular registers at the top and bottom of this inscribed panel, this folio introduces the 26th juz' (section) of the Qurʼan. The central space includes an inscription containing verses 77–79 of Chapter 56, Surat al-Waqi'ah (The inevitable). These verses typically open the Qurʼan, although they may appear in decorated pages used to separate the ajza' (parts) of the Qurʼan. The surah(chapter) title at the top is executed in gold and outlined in black ink. It specifies that this surah contains 35 verses ...

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Qurʼan Carpet Page; al-Fatihah

Qurʼan Carpet Page; al-Fatihah

This folio contains an opening carpet page of a Qurʼan. It is the second of five folios belonging to a dispersed Qurʼan manuscript in the collections of the Library of Congress. Together with another folio, this folio constitutes the double-page illuminated frontispiece of a beautiful, albeit damaged, 14th-century Mamluk Qurʼan. The folio contains the continuation of verses 76–80 of the 56th surah (chapter), al-Waqi'ah (The inevitable), contained in the top and bottom rectangular panels of the double-page illuminated frontispiece. The decorative patterns and palette of this carpet page ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This fragment includes on its recto the last verse (110) of the 18th chapter of the Qurʼan entitled Surat al-Kahf (The cave). The heading of the next chapter (19) entitled Surat Maryam (Mary) appears on the fragment's verso. The Qurʼanic text itself is executed on rag paper in old Persian Naskh and provided with interlinear Persian translations. Like the chapter heading on its verso, the last line of Surat al-Kahf is executed in plaited eastern Kufi, with knots executed in black ink on the letters' stems and in red ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This folio contains verses 1–4 of the second chapter of the Qurʼan entitled al-Baqarah (The cow), the fourth of five folios belonging to a dispersed Qurʼan manuscript in the collections of the Library of Congress. Together, these folios constitute the first five folios of a beautiful, albeit damaged, 14th-century Mamluk Qurʼan. The title of the chapter, executed on a blue and gold background in the top and bottom rectangular panels, gives the name of the surah and the total number of verses (286), words, and letters. The interest in ...

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Illuminated Panel and Qurʼanic Chapter

Illuminated Panel and Qurʼanic Chapter

This illuminated rectangular panel appears at the very beginning of a Qurʼan executed in early Naskh script, dating from about the 11th–13th centuries. On the verso of the folio appears al-Fatihah (The opening), the first chapter of the Qurʼan. Ornamental pages such as this one decorate the start or end of Qurʼans from the ninth century onward. Also called "carpet pages," they provide an ornamental and structural break in the manuscript. Rectangular panels filled with geometric motifs and provided with a finial or leaf-like medallion on the side trace ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This Qurʼanic fragment includes the last verse (30) of the 32nd chapter of the Qurʼan, Surat al-Sajdah(The prostration), as well as the bismillah (in the name of God) and first verse of the subsequent chapter (33) entitled Surat al-Ahzab (The confederates). The subsequent verses of Surat al-Ahzab continue on the fragment's verso. The title executed in gold ink outlined in black specifies that the chapter contains 73 verses. The beginning of this surah discusses the necessity of abandoning pagan customs. The verso of this fragment includes verse 1 ...

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Colophon of Niẓāmī's

Colophon of Niẓāmī's "Makhzan al-Asrar" and Title Page of Niẓāmī's "Khusraw va Shirin"

This folio contains the illuminated title page of the second book of Niẓāmī's Khamsah (Quintet), entitled Khusraw va Shirin, and the colophon of the preceding work, Makhzan al-Asrar (The treasury of secrets). Written during the last few decades of the 12th century, the Khamsah consists of five books written in rhyming distichs. Along with Firdawsī's Shahnamah (Book of kings), the Khamsah stands out as one of the great monuments of medieval Persian poetry. It is about the love relationship of the last great Sasanian ruler, Khusraw Parvīz (590 ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This Qurʼanic fragment includes a carpet page on the left intended to introduce a new section of the Qurʼan, as well as the subsequent ayahs (verses) 53–54 of the 39th surah (chapter) entitled al-Zumar(The crowds). Surat al-Zumar is the last of a series of six chapters (34–39) dealing with the mysteries of the spiritual world and the hereafter. Verse 53 in particular stresses God's compassion. The green and red illuminated carpet page on the folio's left is intended to introduce the 24th juz' (section) of ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This Qurʼanic fragment includes verses 148–50 of the sixth chapter of the Qurʼan entitled al-An'am (The cattle). Verses 150–51 continue on the fragment's verso. This surah dates from the late Meccan period. It discusses the nature of God and the manner in which He reveals Himself. These verses encourage humans to follow God's path and to follow God's will as described in the Qurʼan, because His commands are based on moral law. "Come, I will rehearse what God has really prohibited you from: / Join ...

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Sa'di's

Sa'di's "Gulistan"

This fragment includes the beginning of Sa'di's Gulistan (The rose garden) on its recto, as well as the work's final page on its verso. The first page includes the title of the work written in white ink on a blue background decorated with orange leaf spirals. The rest of the illuminated top panel contains interlacing flowers and gold panels on a blue ground. A didactic work in both prose and verse, Gulistan was composed in 1258 by the Persian poet and prose writer Shaykh Sa'di Shirazi ...

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Spousal Advice

Spousal Advice

This calligraphic fragment includes six lines of script written right-side-up and up-side-down in Thuluth script in black ink on a beige sheet of folio pasted to an orange sheet backed by cardboard. Together, the six continuous lines of text in Arabic read: “A father speaks to a mother [and says] this is what is joyful to a tender and loving father and one who knows that this behavior is desirable. You, as their mother, must be a sound, healthy, and pure soul; you should implement these [manners] as my will ...

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Levha, or Calligraphic Panel

Levha, or Calligraphic Panel

This calligraphic panel includes an Arabic saying written in black Nasta'liq script on a brown background framed in blue and pink borders decorated with gold designs. The lower right and left corners of the panel are lost. The saying reads: “I entrust my affairs to God. Truly, God looks after His servants.” This particular prayer, which places complete trust in God, typically is recited by an individual as a du'a (pious invocation) to the Lord. Several mystical groups, such as the Naqshbandi order of Sufis, also recite this ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This calligraphic fragment includes verses 17–34 of the 80th chapter of the Qurʼan entitled 'Abasa (He frowned). Surat 'Abasa is an early Meccan surah containing 42 verses. It describes an episode during which a blind man interrupted the Prophet while he was attempting to teach. Because the man wanted to learn the Qurʼan, the Prophet excused the disruption and held the man in high honor. The verses continue with an exaltation of revelation and the Qurʼan: “It is indeed a Message of instruction. / Therefore let whoever will keep it ...

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Praise (Madh) to 'Ali

Praise (Madh) to 'Ali

This calligraphic fragment includes four lines of Shi'i poetry encouraging the talib (seeker) to derive spiritual knowledge of God by means of understanding the Prophet's son-in-law, 'Ali. The verses read: “Oh seeker, search for the secret of Truth (God) from (His) Names / From the Name, search the epitome of What is Named / From the essence of 'Ali recite the name of the Exalted One / And from the name of 'Ali search the favor of the Lofty One.” These verses draw on the symbolic dichotomy between al-ism (the name ...

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Levha, or Calligraphic Panel

Levha, or Calligraphic Panel

This calligraphic sheet states that "whoever writes the bismillah ("in the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful") in a beautiful writing enters Paradise without judgment." This saying is quite popular in Ottoman qit'a (calligraphic panels), as husn-i khatt (good handwriting) was considered an outward manifestation of the religious and moral values cultivated by calligraphers. This panel includes a minute signature at the bottom center of the lowermost register. Although almost illegible today, the signature indicates that the work was executed by a certain Mawlana Hasan (or Hamid) Hilli ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This fragment includes the 45th verse of the 29th chapter of the Qurʼan entitled al-'Ankabut (The spider). This verse initiates a new and separate section of the surah, in which the Qurʼan is discussed as a sign of revelation, a tool in teaching the distinction between right and wrong, and a vehicle in understanding the hereafter. The verso of the folio contains verses 46 and 47, which continue verse 45 and initiate a new juz' (section) in the Qurʼan. This particular Qurʼanic fragment has placed the verses within a ...

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Verses on Perceived Value

Verses on Perceived Value

This calligraphic fragment includes a Persian poem that describes how luxury goods such as semi-precious stones and furs are devoid of any inherent worth. Beginning with an invocation to huwa al-muizz(God, the Glorified), the verses read: “I suppose your throne is made of crystal and jasper / Everyone who has an eye knows that they are just stone / That seat made from weasel and ermine (and with) a banner / To those who sit in wicker is but skin.” The calligrapher Muhammad Mahdi Husayni states that he has written these lines ...

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First Page of Sa'di's

First Page of Sa'di's "Bustan"

This calligraphic fragment consists of the first seven pages of Bustan (The fruit garden), a famous and beloved work composed by Shaykh Sa'di (died 691 AH/1292) in 1256–57. The work contains histories, personal anecdotes, fables, and moral instruction. This copy of Bustan may have been produced in India during the 17th century. The back of the second page includes a note supporting this provenance, as it states that the work was written by 'Abd al-Rashid Daylami, one of the famous calligraphers active at the court of the ...

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Eid Blessings

Eid Blessings

This calligraphic fragment provides Arabic blessings to a ruler on the occasion of Eid (also seen as 'Id). A number of the patron's epithets and titles are included in the text, which is executed in black Naskh script on a beige paper. The words are fully vocalized in black and are framed by cloud bands on a gold background. The text panel is framed by a border decorated with red, blue, and green flower and vine motifs and is pasted to a larger salmon-orange colored piece of paper backed ...

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Faux Kufi Qurʼan Fragment

Faux Kufi Qurʼan Fragment

This piece constitutes a modern forgery of an early (ninth−tenth century) Qurʼan. Written in imitation Kufi script in black and red ink on a beige paper, the text panel is framed with an illuminated border possibly cut out from an older Persian manuscript. The text and illuminated border are pasted to a larger brown sheet of paper backed by cardboard. These kinds of reproductions have appeared on the art market and seem to originate from one particular workshop engaged in imitating older Qurʼans and decorating them with illuminations salvaged ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

The recto of this fragment includes surahs 101−4, some of the shortest and final chapters of the Qurʼan, which continue on the fragment's verso and on another fragment held in the collections of the Library of Congress. At the top of the fragment appears the text, though not the chapter heading, of the 101st chapter entitled al-Qari'ah (The calamity). This particular surah describes the Day of Judgment, when men's deeds will be weighed to determine whether they will dwell in an abode of pleasure (Heaven) or ...

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'Id (Feast Day) Poem

'Id (Feast Day) Poem

This calligraphic panel includes a ruba'i (iambic pentameter quatrain), signed and dated in the lower-left corner by the calligrapher Mir Muhammad Salih: “written by Mir Muhammad Salih, 1225” (AD 1810). Although little is known about the calligrapher, the date proves that this work dates from the early 19th century. The text is executed in black (Indian) naskh script on a beige sheet of paper, framed in a blue border decorated with gold leaf and vine motifs. Before the quatrain begins, a short invocation of God that reads "he is ...

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'Id (Feast Day) Prayer

'Id (Feast Day) Prayer

This calligraphic fragment includes a poetical prayer wishing its owner happiness and prosperity on the occasion of the 'id (also seen as 'Id and Eid) festival of Noruz (New Year). Beginning with a (now barely legible) invocation to huwa ar-Raheem (God as the Glorious), the verses then read: “Oh, your face is 'id and your eyebrow is the moon of 'id / May your month and year be auspicious and happy / May my eye not be bright without seeing you / The arch of your eyebrow is the prayer direction of (all ...

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Quatrain on Freedom

Quatrain on Freedom

This calligraphic fragment includes a ruba'i (iambic pentameter quatrain) promoting personal independence and khatir (the renunciation of attachment to people and places). Beginning with an invocation to huwa al-mu'izz (God as the Glorified), the verses read: “Do not get tied to any person or to any place / Because the land and sea are vast and people are many / If a thousand beautiful ones come towards you / Look, move on, and do not get attached to anybody.” Executed in black nasta'liq script on a beige paper, the verses ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

These two calligraphic fragments include verses from the 11th chapter of the Qurʼan, entitled Hud (The prophet Hud). The first fragment's verso includes verses (116−23) of Surat Hud, as well as the chapter heading and first four verses of the 12th surah, entitled Yusuf (Joseph). Surat Hud provides some stories linked to the prophets (e.g., Noah and Moses), stressing the moral lessons learned through such narratives. Many verses are eschatological in character and warn of the punishment awaiting sinners, for example: “The Day it arrives, no soul ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

These fragments belong to a series of three folios cut out from the same manuscript, now in the Library of Congress. The first two provide verses from chapters 78−79 of the Qurʼan. The first fragment’s recto contains verses 18−26 of the 79th chapter entitled al-Nazi'at. Its verso contains verses 27−34 of Surat al-Nazi'at. This Meccan surah contains 46 verses on the Day of Judgment and God's omnipotence. Verses 18−26 contain the parable of Moses and Pharaoh. The second fragment contains verses 18 ...

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Praises to Husayn

Praises to Husayn

This calligraphic fragment provides repeated al-salam 'alayka (Shi'i blessings) in Arabic directed to Husayn, the Prophet Muhammad's grandson through his son-in-law 'Ali. He is addressed by his many names and epithets, such as 'Abd Allah (servant of God), Ibn rasul (son of the Prophet), Khayrat Allah (goodness of God), Ibn amir al-mu'minin (son of the Leader of the Faithful), and Ibn Fatimah al-zahra' (son of Fatimah, the radiant). The text is executed in an Indian variant of thuluth script in black ink on a red ground. Words ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This calligraphic fragment includes verses 25−33 of the 35th chapter of the Qurʼan entitled al-Fatir (The originator of creation). The text continues with verses 33−40 on the folio's verso. These particular verses are found on another fragment of a Qurʼan also executed in Kufi script in the collections of the Library of Congress. Surat al-Fatir deals with the mysteries and forces of al-khalq (creation), as well as the angelic forces that maintain creation. Paradise is promised for believers, and Hell for unbelievers. Hope is the promise of ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This calligraphic fragment includes verses 17−22 of the 18th chapter of the Qurʼan entitled al-Kahf (The cave). The text continues on the fragment's verso with verses 22−31. Surat al-Kahf relates the story of the Companions of the Cave, also known as the Sleepers of Ephesus. These Christian martyrs were immured in a cave near Ephesus during the persecutions by Decius in about 250. They awoke in the fifth century during the reign of Theodosius II, when Christianity was firmly established. They fell asleep once more and, we ...

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Decorative Borders

Decorative Borders

The recto of this calligraphic fragment includes verses composed by the famous Persian poet Ḥāfiẓ (died 1388−89, AH 791), as well as a number of other verses framed in rectangular bands along the inner border of the central panel. Every line of calligraphy is cut out and pasted individually onto the fragment's illuminated background. The verses are framed by white and blue borders decorated with gold flower-and-leaf motifs, and pasted onto an orange paper painted in gold and provided with ornamental medallions containing pink and white flowers. This ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This calligraphic fragment includes verses 20−21 of the 46th chapter of the Qurʼan entitled al-Ahqaf (The winding sand tracks). The text continues with verses 21−24 on the folio's verso. Surat al-Ahqaf is the seventh and last chapter of a series of surahs beginning with the mysterious abbreviated letters ha−mim(h−m). It discusses Creation, its purpose, and its vindication. Those who do not believe in God and his Creation will suffer torment on the Day of Judgment. The title of this surah comes from the long ...

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Al-Fatihah

Al-Fatihah

This Qurʼanic fragment contains the first chapter of the Qurʼan entitled al-Fatihah (The opening). Recited at the very beginning of the Qurʼan, this surah proclaims God as Gracious and Merciful and the Master of the Day of Judgment, and beseeches him to lead his followers on the straight path. The illuminated upper and lower panels contain a text, outlined in gold ink to let the plain folio show through, stating that this surah is Fatihat al-Kitab al-'Aziz (The opening of the Holy Book) and contains seven ayat (verses; singular ...

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Introduction (Muqadimmah)

Introduction (Muqadimmah)

This fragment in Arabic provides a muqadimmah (introduction) to an otherwise unidentified work, perhaps a khutbah (sermon). Beginning with the bismillah (in the name of God), the text continues with a prayer of blessing for those whom God has selected. On the very last line appears the signature of a certain Muhammad Ja'far, who states that mashaqahu (he has written this piece). The work is written in black naskh script and is fully vocalized, an indication that the text may have been read aloud. It is written on brown ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This calligraphic fragment includes the beginning of verse 11 of the 49th chapter of the Qurʼan entitled al-Hujurat (The chambers). This same verse continues on the folio's verso. Surat al-Hujurat is the third of a group of three Medinan surahs, beginning with chapter 47. It discusses conduct that must be observed by the Muslim community, such as mutual respect and allegiance to a rightful leader. The beginning of verse 11 on this fragment stresses proper behavior: “O you who believe, / Do not let some men among you laugh at ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This calligraphic fragment includes verses 120−21 of the ninth chapter of the Qurʼan entitled al-Tawbah (The repentance). The text continues with verses 121−22 on the folio's verso. Surat al-Tawbah describes broken treaties with pagans and the fighting against infidelity. If a community marches out, some of its members should remain behind in order to continue the teaching of religious matters. Those who believe should associate with the righteous and truthful, actively doing their duty: “It was not fitting for the people of Medina / And the Bedouin Arabs ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This calligraphic fragment includes, on the left-hand side of the bifolium, the illuminated title and verses 1−6 of the 69th chapter of the Qurʼan entitled al-Haqqah (The truth). This text continues with verses 6−14 on the fragment's verso. The right side of the recto then proceeds with verses 14−19 from the same chapter. Altogether, this fragment contains the title and verses 1−19 of Surat al-Haqqah. This surah dates from the Meccan period and contains 52 verses. It is largely eschatological in nature, and verses 1 ...

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Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This calligraphic fragment includes verses 62−64 of the 24th chapter of the Qurʼan entitled al-Nur (The light). The text of this surah ends on the fragment's verso, which also contains the illuminated heading and first three verses of the subsequent (25th) chapter of the Qurʼan entitled al-Furqan (The criterion). Surat al-Nur describes domestic and public matters and discusses how communal life contributes to man's virtues and his spiritual journey towards God, as in verse 24:62: “Only those are believers who trust in God and his Messenger ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Panel of Illumination, Qurʼanic Verses

Panel of Illumination, Qurʼanic Verses

This panel of illumination marks the beginning of the 20th juz' (part) of the Qurʼan at verse 56 of the 27th chapter entitled Surat al-Naml (The ants). Verses 56−60 of the surah appear on this folio's verso and also on another fragment from the same Qurʼan in the collections of the Library of Congress. On that fragment, the text continues with verses 57−60. Together, these two folios form the beginning of the 20th juz' (part) of the Qurʼan, demarcated by a panel of illumination on the recto ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses

This calligraphic fragment includes verses 57−59 of the 27th chapter of the Qurʼan entitled al-Naml (The ants). The text continues with verses 59−60 on the folio's verso. The immediately preceding verses, 56−57, appear on another fragment from the same Qurʼan in the collections of the Library of Congress. Together, these two folios form the beginning of the 20th juz' (part) of the Qurʼan, demarcated by a panel of illumination. Surat al-Naml describes the wonders of the spiritual world. The stories of a number of prophets, such ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Levha (Panel)

Levha (Panel)

This levha (calligraphic panel) reads: “Ya ʻAli, ruhi fadakah” (Oh ʻAli, my spirit is sacrified for you). The letters are arranged artistically to fill the calligraphic panel, making the reading of the phrase quite difficult. Diacritics (vocalization signs) also fill in the composition’s empty spaces. Although meaning is secondary to form, this vocative phrase calling for loyalty to ʻAli underscores the Shiʻi message of the panel. In the left vertical border, the artist, Muhammad Ibrahim, has included his seal and has dated his composition 1134 AH (1721‒22). The ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Qurʼan

The Qurʼan

This manuscript is a fragment of the Qurʼan, consisting of chapters 19 (Sūrat Maryam) through 23 (Sūrat al-mu’minūn). It was produced in the Maghreb and dates from the 12th century AH (18th century AD). The text is written in a large Maghrebī script, with vocalization in red, green, and yellow ink on Italian paper. The codex opens with an illuminated chapter heading for chapter 19 written in the New Abbasid (broken cursive) style (folio 1b) in gold ink within a decorative headpiece. The titles of other chapters are written ...

Contributed by Walters Art Museum

Amplification of the Poem, the Burdah, Or the Expansion of the Bright Stars in the Praise of the Finest of Mankind, the Prophet Muhammad

Amplification of the Poem, the Burdah, Or the Expansion of the Bright Stars in the Praise of the Finest of Mankind, the Prophet Muhammad

This manuscript is a copy of the poem in honor of the Prophet Muhammad, which is popularly known as Qaṣīdat al-burdah (The poem of the mantle). It was written by Sharaf al-Dīn Muḥammad al-Būṣīrī (died 694 AH [1294 AD]). The poem has a takhmīs (amplification, or expansion of the poem) by Naṣīr al-Dīn Muḥammad al-Fayyūmī. The amplification and the text of the Qaṣīdat al-burdah were written in Naskh and Thuluth scripts respectively by Riḍwān ibn Muḥammad al-Tabīzī in 767 AH (1366 AD), probably for the Mawlawī (Mevlevi) Library in Konya ...

Contributed by Walters Art Museum

Two Textual Excerpts

Two Textual Excerpts

This calligraphic fragment includes two separate and unrelated texts written diagonally in black Indian nastaʻliq script on beige paper. The lines of the texts are separated visually by strokes in red ink. The first text at the top provides a section from the Indian historical work entitled the Tarikh-i Bikramajit (History of Bikramajit). It appears that this text belongs to a series of works dealing with local histories, in this case of the Indian state of Sangri and its ruler Bikramajit (ruled 1800−1803 and 1815−16). The calligrapher, a ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Comment on the Lights of Revelations

Comment on the Lights of Revelations

This Ottoman manuscript is a ḥāshiyah (gloss) on the commentary on the Qur’an entitled Anwār al-tanzīl, which was composed by ‘Abd Allāh al-Bayḍawī, who died in about 685 AH (1286 AD). The gloss was written by Kemalpaşazade (died 940 AH [1533 AD]), and the present copy was transcribed from the author's holograph in 966 AH (1558 AD) by ‘Uthmān ibn Manṣūr. The text is written in Turkish Nasta’līq script in black ink, with the words qāla (I said) and aqūlu (I said), being indicators of quotations, in ...

Contributed by Walters Art Museum

Jami's

Jami's "Nafahat al-Uns"

This calligraphic fragment includes a section from a hagiographical work by Jami (died 1492) entitled Nafahat al-Uns (Lives of the saints), in which the lives of a number of Sufi saints are described. In this particular folio and its verso, Jami describes an event in the life of the Sufi shaykh Sirri ibn al-Maghlas al-Saqati (died 867). He was the teacher and maternal uncle of the famous mystic Junayd of Baghdad (Abu al-Qasim Junayd ibn Muhammad, died circa 910) and composed many sayings on tawhid (mystical unity), love of God ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Quatrain on True Knowledge

Quatrain on True Knowledge

This calligraphic fragment provides a rubaʻi (iambic pentameter quatrain) written in black nastaʻliq script. The text is outlined in cloud bands filled with blue and placed on a gold background. In the upper-right corner, a gold decorative motif fills in the triangular space otherwise left empty by the intersection of the rectangular frame and the diagonal lines of text. The verses read “I arrived at a worshipper’s in the area of Baylaqan. / I said: ‘With tutoring purify me from ignorance.’ / He said: ‘Oh, Thoughtful One, go, because, like the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Album

Album

This muraqqa’ (album) of calligraphy in an accordion format was compiled in Ottoman Turkey in the 12th century AH (18th century AD). The medium is ink and pigments on paper mounted on thin pasteboard. It consists, in part, of leaves bearing fragmentary passages from the Qurʼan, from chapter 2 (Sūrat al-baqarah), verses 65–68, and chapter 4 (Sūrat al-nisā’), verses 103–6. Also included are the hadith (the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad), and two sheets of karalama (pen exercises). The Qurʼanic verses and the passages of hadith are written ...

Contributed by Walters Art Museum

The Meccan Revelations

The Meccan Revelations

Muḥyiddin ibn Arabi (1165–1240 AD, 560–638 AH), also known as al-Shaykh al-Akbar (the Great Shaykh), was a Muslim mystic and philosopher of Andalusian origin. He was born in Murcia but his family later moved to Seville. Ibn Arabi’s life was divided almost equally between West and East. After traveling extensively in North Africa, he embarked on a spiritual journey from his native Spain. He arrived in Mecca in 1202, where he spent three years. He then spent years traveling in Syria, Palestine, Iraq, and Turkey. He died ...

Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina

The Grand Sheikh Ibn Sina's Collection of Treatises

The Grand Sheikh Ibn Sina's Collection of Treatises

Al Hussein ibn Abdullah Ibn Sina (also known by the Latinized version of his name, Avicenna, 980–1037 AD; 370–428 AH) was a Muslim Persian polymath and the foremost physician and philosopher of his time. In his Introduction to the History of Science, the eminent historian of science George Sarton (1884–1956) characterized Ibn Sina as “one of the most famous exponents of Muslim universalism and an eminent figure in Islamic learning,” noting that “for a thousand years he has retained his original renown as one of the greatest ...

Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina

The Book of Compilation

The Book of Compilation

Abu Nasr Muhammad al-Farabi (also known by his Latinized name, Alpharabius, circa 870–950 AD) was a Muslim philosopher and scientist, who also had interests in political philosophy, logic, cosmology, music, and psychology. Although his origin is unconfirmed, it is generally agreed that al-Farabi was of Persian origin and that he was born either in Faryab in present-day Afghanistan or in Farab in present-day Kazakhstan. He was called the “Second Teacher,” a deferential reference suggesting he was second in philosophy only to Aristotle. Shown here is Kitab Al-majmu' (Book of ...

Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Selected Treatises by Jabir ibn Hayyan

Selected Treatises by Jabir ibn Hayyan

Jabir ibn Hayyan (also known by his Latinized name Geber, circa 721–815 AD) was a Muslim polymath, natural philosopher, and alchemist. He was probably born in Tus, Khorasan, in present-day Iran, although some sources give his birthplace as Kufa, Iraq. Some aspects of the life of Jabir ibn Hayyan, as well as the authenticity of tens, if not hundreds, of the titles of his extremely large body of work have been questioned. More than 3,000 treatises or books are attributed to him in one way or another, with ...

Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Bosnian Book of the Science of Conduct

Bosnian Book of the Science of Conduct

Bosnian Book of the Science of Conduct is a work that lists 54 religious duties that each believer must know about, believe in, and fulfill, followed by advice on what a religious person should and should not do. Published in 1831, the handbook is by the Bosnian author and poet 'Abdulwahāb b.' Abdulwahāb Žepčewī, also known as Ilhami or Ilhamija. Born in Žepče in 1773 (AH 1187), Ilhami was executed in Travnik in 1821 by order of Dželaludin-paša, the Ottoman pasha of Bosnia in 1820–21. In his poetry, Ilhami ...

Contributed by National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Stories of the Prophets

Stories of the Prophets

Qisas al-anbiya (Stories of the prophets) by the 12th-century Persian writer Ishaq Ibn-Ibrahim al-Nishapuri contains the history of the prophets up to Muhammad, recounted on the basis of the Qur’anic narration. It includes stories drawn from the biblical traditions of the Old Testament as well as material on the pre-Islamic prophets of the Arabian Peninsula. This splendid and richly illuminated manuscript containing 22 miniatures was copied in Shiraz (in present-day Iran) in 1577, at the time a center of the arts in Safavid Persia. The manuscript once belonged to ...

Contributed by Berlin State Library - Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation

Javanese Manuscript of the Adventures of Hamza

Javanese Manuscript of the Adventures of Hamza

The adventures of the early Islamic hero Hamza, the uncle of the Prophet Muhammad, are a favorite subject of Javanese literature in which the deeds of the hero, here called Ménak, are retold. The Javanese legends are written in poetic form and relate the stories as occurring during the lifetime of the Prophet. This manuscript, written in the Javanese and Pégon (Arabic–Javanese) alphabets, contains a number of the main episodes in the tales of Hamza. The codex offers a prime example of the art of book illumination that flourished ...

Contributed by Bavarian State Library

Qurʼan of Père Lachaise

Qurʼan of Père Lachaise

This 14th-century Mameluke Qurʼan, which belonged to Père Lachaise, confessor of Louis XIV, was obtained by the Jesuit order of Paris in 1693. The manuscript was confiscated when the order was dissolved in France in 1763. Gerhoh Steigenberger (1741–87), canon regular of the Upper Bavarian monastery of Polling, subsequently bought it, along with large parts of the dissolved Jesuit library. Steigenberger had been sent to Paris to acquire books and manuscripts for the monastic library. After the dissolution of the monastery in 1803, the manuscript was transferred to the ...

Contributed by Bavarian State Library

11th-Century Qurʼan in Eastern Kufic

11th-Century Qurʼan in Eastern Kufic

This 11th-century manuscript contains the 20th juz’ (section) of a Qurʼan that originally consisted of 30 parts. The arrangement into 30 parts corresponds to the number of days in the month of Ramadan, during which the Muslim is obliged to fast and to read through the whole of the Qurʼan. Other sections or fragments of this magnificent manuscript lie scattered in various collections all over the world. A Turkish note ascribes the Qurʼan to the hand of the Caliph Ali, Muhammad’s cousin and son-in-law, and thus demonstrates the high ...

Contributed by Bavarian State Library

The Wonders of Creation

The Wonders of Creation

Zakarīyā Ibn Muḥammad al-Qazwīnī (1203–83) spent most of his life in present-day Iran and Iraq and served as a judge in Wasit and Hilla, Iraq, during the reign of the last Abbasid caliph, Musta‘sim (1240–58). Al-Qazwīnī was also a geographer and natural historian, and known for his encyclopedic knowledge. This work, Kitāb ‘Ajā’ib al-makhlūqāt wa-gharā’ib al-mawjūdāt (The wonders of creation, or literally, Marvels of things created and miraculous aspects of things existing), probably was written in the sixth decade of the 13th century and is ...

Contributed by Bavarian State Library

The Beginner’s Guide to Commercial Transactions (The Protection of Individuals in Commercial Transactions)

The Beginner’s Guide to Commercial Transactions (The Protection of Individuals in Commercial Transactions)

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. This volume delineates the obligations of parties to commercial exchanges and contracts. In Sullam al-Aṭfāl fī Buyū‘ al-Ājāl ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

Useful Stories and Verses as Sources for Guidance and Emulation

Useful Stories and Verses as Sources for Guidance and Emulation

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. The ethical conduct of business and government is the subject of the exemplary stories contained in al-Fawā’id wa-al-Qalā ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

Book of the Blessed Merits of Crafts and Agriculture

Book of the Blessed Merits of Crafts and Agriculture

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. The social benefits of trades, crafts, and agricultural pursuits are discussed in this book. The anonymous author describes the ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

Commercial Agreement (Slave Trade)

Commercial Agreement (Slave Trade)

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. Wathīqah Tijārīyah (Commercial agreement) is a contract among merchants involved in the sale and transportation of slaves between Timbuktu ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

Commercial Agreement (Gold as Currency)

Commercial Agreement (Gold as Currency)

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. This commercial agreement concerns commerce in several cities. The agreement contains interesting references to the cost of building houses ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

Explanation of “The Prosodies” of Abi Abdullah Muhammad al-Arabi

Explanation of “The Prosodies” of Abi Abdullah Muhammad al-Arabi

Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. This work explains how to live a life of charity. Charity refers to not only generosity toward one's ...

Contributed by Mamma Haidara Commemorative Library

The Wonders of Creation

The Wonders of Creation

Zakarīyā ibn Muhammad al-Qazwīnī (circa 1203–83), was a distinguished Iranian scholar who was conversant in poetry, history, geography, and natural history. He served as legal expert and judge in several localities in Iran and at Baghdad. After traveling throughout Mesopotamia and Syria, he wrote his famous Arabic-language cosmography, 'Aja'eb ol-makhluqat wa qara'eb ol-mowjudat (The wonders of creation, or literally, Marvels of things created and miraculous aspects of things existing). This treatise, frequently illustrated, was immensely popular and is preserved today in many copies. It has been translated ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of the Islamic Republic of Iran

The Spiritual Couplets

The Spiritual Couplets

The most significant contribution of Jalāl al-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (popularly known in Persian as Mawlānā, and in English as Rumi, 1207–73), the renowned poet and mystic of Iran, to Persian literature may be his poetry, and especially his famous Masnavi (The spiritual couplets). This work, which is said to be the most extensive verse exposition of mysticism in any language, discusses and offers solutions to many complicated problems in metaphysics, religion, ethics, mysticism, and other fields. Masnavihighlights the various hidden aspects of Sufism and their relationship to the ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of the Islamic Republic of Iran

Al-Bukhāri's Abridged Collection of Authentic Hadith

Al-Bukhāri's Abridged Collection of Authentic Hadith

This work is the earliest Arabic manuscript in the National Library of Bulgaria. Incomplete and fragmentary, it is a 1017 copy of Volume 3 of Sahīh al-Bukhārī (Al-Bukhārī’s authentic hadiths). Muhammad ibn Ismā‘īl al-Bukhārī (810–70) was born in Bukhara, in present-day Uzbekistan, and died in Khartank, near Samarkand. He is considered by Sunni Muslims to be the most authoritative collector of hadiths—reports of statements or deeds attributed to the Prophet Muhammad. This work, completed in 846, is al-Bukhārī’s best-known collection. It was the first work ...

Contributed by National Library of Bulgaria

Commentary on the Chapter Nine of the Book of Medicine Dedicated to Mansur

Commentary on the Chapter Nine of the Book of Medicine Dedicated to Mansur

This work is a commentary in Latin by Italian professor and physician Giovanni Arcolani (died 1484, also known as Ioannis Arculani) on the ninth book of Kitāb al-ṭibb al-Manṣūrī (The book of medicine dedicated to Mansur) by the renowned Persian polymath Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Zakarīyā Rāzī (circa 865–circa 925). Known in the Latin West as Rhazes or Rasis, Rāzī was born in Rayy, just south of Tehran. He is generally considered one of the towering figures in medicine in the medieval period. His influence on ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

The Enwreathed Pearl: The Conquest of Mecca, the Revered

The Enwreathed Pearl: The Conquest of Mecca, the Revered

This manuscript relates the history of the fath (conquest) of Mecca, the commercial and religious capital of Arabia, by the Prophet Muhammad in 630. The work is an abridged version, drawn from the many accounts in early texts, of the years of battle, negotiation, and exhortation that culminated in the conquest. The author is probably Egyptian scholar and Sufi Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Bakri (1493 or 1494−1545 or 1546), although other members of this prominent family of scholars also have been credited with the work. The main source for the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Collection of Prayers for the Prophet Muhammad

Collection of Prayers for the Prophet Muhammad

This North African manuscript dating from the early to mid-18th century is a prayer book, Wardah al-juyūb fī al-ṣalāh ʻalá al-Ḥabīb (Collection of prayers for the Prophet Muhammad). Prayers for the Prophet Muhammad have a special place in Muslim devotional life. They were first enshrined in the Qurʼan: verse 56 of chapter 33 al-Aḥzab (The combined forces) tells Muslims that “Allah and His angels confer their blessings on the Prophet,” and calls on the believers to do the same. From speeches to book introductions, devout Muslims often begin with some ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Supplication Attributed to Caliph Ali

Supplication Attributed to Caliph Ali

Caliph ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (circa 601−61) is one of the most revered religious and holy figures of Islam. His honorary name, Amīr al-Mu‘minīn, translates from Persian as the “prince of the believers.” Written works by ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib and sayings attributed to him are sacred to the Shiite faithful, particularly among Persian speakers. Shown here is an illuminated 18th-century manuscript copy of the Munājāt(Supplication) of ʻAli ibn Abī Ṭālib. Included are both the original Arabic and a translation into Persian. The text is written on ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Sir William Muir

Sir William Muir

This photograph of Sir William Muir (1819–1905) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Muir entered the Bengal Civil Service in 1837 but served in the North-Western Provinces for most of his career. After the 1857 Indian Rebellion, the North-Western Provinces were ruled by a lieutenant governor who reported directly to the British government; Muir served in that position from 1868–74. He became famous because of his extensive and controversial scholarship on Islam and the early Muslim ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Kirka Sharif, the Shrine Where the Mantle of the Prophet is Preserved

Kirka Sharif, the Shrine Where the Mantle of the Prophet is Preserved

This photograph of the Kirka Sharif (Mosque of the Sacred Cloak) in Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The Kirka Sharif houses the mantle (cloak) said to have belonged to the Prophet Muhammad. It is one of the most-revered relics in the Islamic world, given to Aḥmad Shāh Durrānī (1722–72), ruler of the Durrani Empire (1747–1818) by the amir of Bukhara in about 1768. The interior of the mosque is ornately carved green marble from ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Images from Mecca

Images from Mecca

Bilder aus Mecca (Images from Mecca) by the Dutch orientalist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) is one of the earliest works by a non-Arab to document Mecca and the hajj in photographs. Hurgronje studied at Leiden University, where he earned a doctorate in Semitic languages and literature with a dissertation on Mecca and the pilgrim rituals and their historical background. He became a teacher at the Leiden training college for East Indian officials. In 1884–85 he was granted a leave of absence to go to Jeddah and Mecca to ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

View of the Mosque, While Congregational Salat Are Being Held inside

View of the Mosque, While Congregational Salat Are Being Held inside

This rare photograph is from Bilder aus Mecca (Images from Mecca), an album by the Dutch orientalist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) that is one of the earliest works by a non-Arab to document Mecca and the hajj in photographs. Hurgronje studied at Leiden University, where he earned a doctorate in Semitic languages and literature with a dissertation on Mecca and the pilgrim rituals and their historical background. He became a teacher at the Leiden training college for East Indian officials. In 1884–85 he was granted a leave of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Zigzag Journeys in the Camel Country: Arabia in Picture and Story

Zigzag Journeys in the Camel Country: Arabia in Picture and Story

Samuel Zwemer (1867–1952) was an American missionary who became known as the “Apostle to Islam” for his strenuous, if not always successful, evangelization efforts in Islamic countries. He attended Hope College in Holland, Michigan, and the New Brunswick Seminary in New Jersey. In 1889 he and a classmate founded the American Arabian Mission, which later received sponsorship from the Reformed Church, and the next year he departed for the Arabian Peninsula. In 1896 he met and married Amy Wilkes (died 1937), an Australian fellow missionary and nurse. Together, the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Topsy-Turvy Land: Arabia Pictured for Children

Topsy-Turvy Land: Arabia Pictured for Children

Samuel Zwemer (1867–1952) was an American missionary who became known as the “Apostle to Islam” for his strenuous if not always successful evangelization efforts in Islamic countries. He attended Hope College in Holland, Michigan, and the New Brunswick Seminary in New Jersey. In 1889 he and a classmate founded the American Arabian Mission, which later received sponsorship from the Reformed Church. The next year he departed for the Arabian Peninsula. In 1896 he met and married Amy Wilkes (died 1937), an Australian fellow missionary and nurse. The Zwemers spent ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Arabia: Comprising Its Geography, History, and Topography

Arabia: Comprising Its Geography, History, and Topography

Josiah Conder (1789–1855) was a British publisher and author who wrote or compiled 33 volumes of travel literature about nearly every region of the world, including the Middle East. Conder himself never traveled abroad and composed his works by drawing upon the writings of earlier scholars and explorers. As indicated in the subtitle, Conder organized his book on Arabia into sections. He begins by describing the topography of the different regions of Arabia and such climatic phenomena as the semoum (poison) winds that blow across the Syrian Desert in ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

An Offering for Kings

An Offering for Kings

Tuḥfat al-mulūk (An offering for kings) is a collection of dicta that was written by order of ʻAbd al-Rahman Khan (also seen as Abdur Rahman Khan), who ruled Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901. The work consists of an introduction and 40 miniature “chapters,” with each chapter containing a moral precept on improving religious, political, and social life. Chapter One states: “Four things lead to the preservation of the kingdom: the protecting of religion and concern for its well-being, a trustworthy vizier, the safe-guarding of resolve, [and] the safe-guarding of confidence ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Rising of the Propitious Twin Stars, and the Amalgamation of the Oceans

The Rising of the Propitious Twin Stars, and the Amalgamation of the Oceans

This manuscript is volume one of Matla us-Sadain wa Majma ul-Baahrain (The rising of the propitious twin stars and the amalgamation of the oceans) by 'Abd al-Razzāq Kamāl al-Dīn ibn Isḥāq al-Samarqandī (1413−82). The book offers a semi-official account of the political history of the late Mongol khanates and Timurid polities in the Caucasus, Iran, Khorasan, and Mawarannahr. Volume one documents the period from 1316, when Abu Said Bahadur Khan, the last great Mongol khan, came to power in Persia, to the death in 1405 of Timur, founder of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Italian Libya

Italian Libya

In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Italian Libya is Number 127 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The study covers physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. It recounts how ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Ascent to Success: Commentary on the Light of Clarity

Ascent to Success: Commentary on the Light of Clarity

Maraqi al-Falah Sharh Nur al-Idah(Ascent to success: Commentary on the light of clarity) is a handbook for worship according to the Hanafi legal tradition by Egyptian legal scholar Hasan al-Shurunbulali (1585 or 1586-1659). The work, frequently reprinted, is a comprehensive guide to the rituals prescribed by Abu Hanifa (699−767), the founder of the Hanafi school of Islamic law. Topics such as ritual purity, fasting, and pilgrimage are covered in great detail. Hanafi jurisprudence is the predominant tradition in Central and South Asia, Turkey, and many other regions. Al-Shurunbulali ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

The Fragrant Blossom: A Work on Manners, Society, and Letters

The Fragrant Blossom: A Work on Manners, Society, and Letters

Arij al-zahr: kitab akhlaqi, ijtima’i, adabi (The fragrant blossom: A work on manners, society, and letters) is a collection of essays by Shaykh Mustafa al-Ghalayini, a Lebanese Muslim teacher, writer, and authority on Islamic law. The essays cover a number of subjects presented in a readable style. Ghalayini discusses what it means to be an elegant speaker and writer in the “proper Arabic way,” avoiding the influences of what he calls a‘ujmah (non-Arabic) or afranj (European) style. In other essays, he treats the nature of mankind, the obligations ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

Explaining al-Khansa’ in Delightful Stanzas

Explaining al-Khansa’ in Delightful Stanzas

This book is a printed collection of the verse of Tumāḍir bint ʿAmr ibn al-Ḥarth ibn al-Sharīd al-Sulamīyah entitled Anis al-Julasāʼ fī Sharḥ Dīwān al-Khansāʼ (Explaining al-Khansa’ in delightful stanzas). Known to history as al-Khansā’ (she of the snub-nose or of resemblance to a gazelle), the author is regarded as one of the leading poets of late pre-Islamic Arabia. After meeting the Prophet Muhammad, who is said to have admired her poetry, she became a Muslim. Contemporary and subsequent appreciation of her poetry owed much to the power of her ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

“History of the Caliphs” by al-Sūyūtī and “Primary Indicators of Well-Regulated States” by al-Hasan al-ʻAbbāsī

“History of the Caliphs” by al-Sūyūtī and “Primary Indicators of Well-Regulated States” by al-Hasan al-ʻAbbāsī

This volume contains two works, Tarikh al-Khulafa’ (History of the caliphs) by al-Sūyūtī (1445−1505) and Athar al-Uwal fi Tartib al-Duwal (Primary indicators of well-regulated states) by al-Hasan ibn ‘Abd Allāh al-‘Abbāsī (died circa 1310). Al-Sūyūtī is renowned for his writings in the Islamic sciences, although not necessarily for this historical work. History of the Caliphs remains in print as a standard summation of the Sunni view of the rule of succession after the Prophet Muhammad’s death. The work reveals a gift for selection and synthesis rather than ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

Refinement of Character

Refinement of Character

Tahdhib al-akhlaq (Refinement of character) is a guide to practical conduct by the famous Iranian polymath Ibn Miskawayh (died 1030). It is considered a primary contribution to the field of ethics. Its origins are firmly rooted in Greek philosophy rather than in Islamic texts and traditions. In his philosophical writings, Ibn Miskawayh presents rational rather than scriptural arguments. Often associated by scholars with Neo-Platonist methods, the author makes frequent reference to Aristotle in discussing human nature, requirements for happiness, and the virtuous life. Ibn Miskawayh is sometimes categorized with Shia ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

The Perfection of Eloquence: The Letters of Shams al-Maʻali Qabus ibn Washmakir

The Perfection of Eloquence: The Letters of Shams al-Maʻali Qabus ibn Washmakir

Kamāl al-balāghah wa huwa rasāʼil Shams al-Maʻālī Qābūs ibn Washmakīr (The perfection of eloquence: The letters of Shams al-Maʻali Qabus ibn Washmakir) is a critical edition of a little-known collection of letters by Ibn Washmakir. The letters demonstrate the writer’s badi’ (virtuosity), especially in rhymed prose. They were transcribed by one ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Yazdadi, who gave the compilation the title Kamal al-balaghah. The current edition is based on two manuscripts discovered in Baghdad in the early 20th century by bookseller Nu’man al-A’zimi. The work was extensively annotated ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

Creation and History

Creation and History

Al-Badʼ wa-al-tārīkh (Creation and history) is a universal history from the Creation until the end of the reign of Abbasid caliph al-Muti in 974. It is not a particularly good example of historical scholarship. It is in large part a list of prophets and kings, leavened with stories derived from written sources, myths, scripture, and the personal thoughts of the author, as, for example, his reflection on the many religious traditions and practices of mankind. With the exception of a strongly worded introductory warning to the reader about those who ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

Law Pertaining to Government Procedures and the Imposition of Penalties and Redresses

Law Pertaining to Government Procedures and the Imposition of Penalties and Redresses

Qānūn-i kārguz̲ārī dar muʻāmalāt-i ḥukūmatī wa taʻayyun-i jarāyim wa siyāsāt (Law pertaining to government procedures and the imposition of penalties and redresses) is the earliest law manual produced in Afghanistan. The document dates from 1303 AH (1885-86), and was issued by the ruler 'Abd al-Rahmān Khān (reigned 1880−1901). The printed edition of this work was published somewhat later, and is dated Rabī̄ʿ al-Ākhar, 1309 AH (November−December 1891). It was through documents such as Qānūn-i kārguz̲ārī that 'Abd al-Rahmān Khān sought to transform traditional Islamic law ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Biographical Account of Timur

The Biographical Account of Timur

Kulliyat-e Farsi Taymurnamah (literally, The biographical account of Timur) is a biography of Timur or Tamerlane (1336−1405), the Turkic-Mongolian founder of the Timurid dynasty and lineage. It chronicles in detail his personal, political, and military life, including campaigns and conquests, and events in the regions of present-day Central Asia, Afghanistan, and Iran. Many biographies of Timur were produced during his lifetime and after. This lithographed version was published in Tashkent by Matba-e Ghulam Hasan in 1912. The last page of the introduction (pages 2−7) states that this book ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Notes of Those Rooted in Understanding and Verification in the Matter of Hadiths and Their Abrogation

Notes of Those Rooted in Understanding and Verification in the Matter of Hadiths and Their Abrogation

This manuscript is a critique by the 12th-century jurist Abu Faraj ibn al-Jawzi of 21 hadiths, or sayings, of the Prophet Muhammad. A significant issue in the study of hadiths is the verification of the chain of transmission back to the Prophet himself. In this work as well as in others, Ibn al-Jawzi comments on the transmission of sayings and on the  misinterpretation or misclassification of companions or relatives of the Prophet, such as ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, Ibn ‘Abbas, and Abu Hurayrah. The topics of the hadiths discussed include ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of Egypt

Curiosity Abated by Wonders of Old Related

Curiosity Abated by Wonders of Old Related

This manuscript, Mushtaha al-‘Uqul fi Muntaha al-Nuqul (Curiosity abated by wonders of old related), is a list of extraordinary facts, or marvels, compiled by al-Suyuti (1445−1505), one of the most prolific Muslim authors of late medieval times. The facts concern religion and history. The first entries cover the wondrous size and power of angels. These are followed by entries on such disparate topics as a census of Baghdad, the size and expense of the Umayyad army, the feats of learning and preaching of early Muslim scholars, and short ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of Egypt

Accessible Introduction to the Prophets Mentioned in the Qurʼan. Essay on the Rules for Use of “la-siyyama,” (“Especially”)

Accessible Introduction to the Prophets Mentioned in the Qurʼan. Essay on the Rules for Use of “la-siyyama,” (“Especially”)

This Arabic manuscript contains two short works by the 18th-century Egyptian scholar Ahmad ibn Ahmad al-Suja’i. The first work, of seven pages, deals with prophets mentioned in the Qu’ran, who are described in verse with commentary. The individuals mentioned include some of the Old Testament prophets, such as Moses, Aaron, and Isaac. The second tract, of three pages, is entitled Risalah fi ahkam la-siyyama(Rules governing use of “especially”). It is a discussion of the meaning and proper usage of this idiom. Both works have been published in ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of Egypt

Fragment of a Treatise on “In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful”

Fragment of a Treatise on “In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful”

This manuscript is a 40-page portion of a work on the pious ejaculation “bi-ism Allah al-Rahman al-Rahim” (“In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful”) formally referred to as bismillah orbasmalah. The manuscript contains extensive hashiyah (marginal annotation) by an unknown author on the anonymous sharh (commentary) on a larger untitled work also by an unknown author. To intone the bismillah is for the Muslim more than simply to remember God’s name. The bismillah is argued by some classical commentators to be an integral part of the ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of Egypt

Commentary on Witnesses: Ibn ‘Aqil’s Commentary on “al-Alfiyah” of Ibn Malik

Commentary on Witnesses: Ibn ‘Aqil’s Commentary on “al-Alfiyah” of Ibn Malik

This manuscript is a copy of the commentary by Ibn ‘Aqil (circa 1294–1367) on Ibn Malik’s famous al-Alfiyah, a 1,000-line poem on the principles of Arabic grammar. Both al-Alfiyah and the commentary are standard texts in the traditional Islamic curriculum. The title of the commentary, “Witnesses,” refers to the search by scholars for ancient and dependable shawahid (witnesses) on whom to rely for authentication of the grammar and lexicon of Arabic. Ibn Malik (died 1274) intended his poem as a teaching tool rather than a work of ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of Egypt

The Hidden Secrets to Clear Thinking

The Hidden Secrets to Clear Thinking

Kashf al-asrar ‘amma khafiya ‘an al-afkar (The hidden secrets to clear thinking) covers numerous topics of a scriptural, devotional, and ritual nature. The author, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Ibn al-ʻImād al-Aqfahsī (1378−1462), states in his introduction that in the book “I provide responses to problematic issues and obscurities hidden from the rational mind of the learned and the wise whose thinking is confused about them.” He uses a question-and-answer format in which he poses a question, which is then followed by citations from earlier authorities and explanations or interpretations of ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of Egypt

Careful Study of Authentic Revelation

Careful Study of Authentic Revelation

This 14th-century manuscript of a work by Abu Ishaq Ibrahim ibn Qurqul (1111−74) is an analysis of lexical problems arising from the canonical hadith texts of al-Bukhari and Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj. Ibn Qurqul’s work is modeled after the better known work by Qadi ‘Ayad, Mashariq al-Anwar `ala Sahih al-Athar (A dawn light upon authentic revelation). This is the third and final portion of a set that begins with the letter ‘ayn and continues to the end of the alphabet. The text typically begins with a review of the ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of Egypt

On the Obedience of the Ruler in Pashto

On the Obedience of the Ruler in Pashto

Risālah-i Puṣhto It̤āʻat-i ūlā al-amr (On the obedience of the ruler in Pashto) is a tract meant to encourage obedience to the ruler of Afghanistan. The expression ūlā al-amr refers to one who is foremost in authority, and the title of the book references a Qur’anic verse (5:59), “Oh Believers! Obey the Lord and the Prophet and those who are foremost in authority amongst you,” which is quoted at the beginning of the work. Numerous quotes from the hadith literature (primarily from the collection of al-Bukhari) follow ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Qurʼan

Qurʼan

Making use of a colored background to write upon was a means rarely used in the East or the West to emphasize the importance of a manuscript. This manuscript, with all its pages gilt, is unique. Simple black writing in the Naskhi style is used on the magnificent background. It is a masterpiece of calligraphy. In the 18th century, when the present cover was made, the book was severely cropped; only about half of each of the palm leaf-shaped “ansae” in the surah headings and the marginal verse numbers survived ...

Contributed by Bavarian State Library

Map of Kafiristan

Map of Kafiristan

The term Kafiristan (“The land of the infidel” in Persian) refers to the fact that the inhabitants of this region in the northeast of Afghanistan were non-Muslims, following Buddhism and other pre-Islamicreligious practices long after neighboring regions had converted to Islam. Indeed, the region as a whole did not adopt Islam until late in the 19th century, when it was forcibly converted by the Afghan emir ʻAbd al-Rahman Khan (also called Abdur Rahman, reigned 1880–1901). The term Kafiristan has become obsolete, and the area is now referred to ...

Contributed by University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries

Clues in the Science of Interpreting Dreams

Clues in the Science of Interpreting Dreams

Ghars al-Din Khalil Ibn Shahin al-Zahiri was born in 1410−11, probably in Jerusalem (or perhaps Cairo). His father was a mamluk of the first Burji sultan (al-Malik al-Zahir) Sayf al-Din Barquq, from whom the nisba (name indicating provenance) al-Zahiri derives. Ghars al-Din Khalil studied in Cairo and—under the Mamluk sultans Barsbay and Jaqmaq—achieved a remarkable career as an administrator, serving at Cairo (as vizier), as well as at Alexandria, Karak, Safed, and Aleppo (as nazir, or overseer). Al-Ishārāt fī ʻilm al-ʻibārāt‏ (Clues in the science of interpreting ...

Contributed by Wellcome Library

The Face of Manchuria, Korea, and Russian Turkestan

The Face of Manchuria, Korea, and Russian Turkestan

This book is based on a four-month journey undertaken in the first part of 1910 by Emily Georgiana Kemp (1860‒1939) and a friend via the Trans-Siberian Railroad to Harbin, China, across Manchuria, and through Korea, and from there to Russian Turkestan via the Trans-Siberian, ending with a trip through the Caucasus. It includes lively descriptions of Mukden, Pyongyang, Seoul, Tashkent, Samarkand, Bukhara and other places, with colored illustrations by the author. Written a few years after the conclusion of the Russo-Japanese War of 1904‒5 and in the same ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Delight of Assemblies

The Delight of Assemblies

Ṭarab al-majālis (The delight of assemblies) is a book of moral advice written in the 13th century by Husayn ibn ʻAlim, also known as Mir Husayni Haravi (1272 or 1273‒circa 1317), a well-known Sufi. Born in Ghor (in present-day Afghanistan), the author appears to have spent much of his adult life in nearby Herat, hence the appellation Haravi. The work is divided into five sections: creation; various classes of human beings; the superiority of humans to animals; ethical behavior; and vice. The edition presented here is a lithographic printing ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Confluence of the Seas

The Confluence of the Seas

Multaqá al-abḥur (The confluence of the seas) is a celebrated work of Hanafi jurisprudence, written by Ibrahim ibn Muhammad Halabi (died 1549 or 1550), also known as al-Halabi. Completed in 1517, al-Halabi’s text is a handbook based on the works of four earlier jurists. Until the reforms of the 19th century, it was the authoritative source of many of the laws of the Ottoman Empire. The work contains rules covering practically every area of human activity, including religious practice, domestic relations, inheritance, commercial transactions, and crime. Al-Halabi was born ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Book of Hermes the Wise

The Book of Hermes the Wise

Kitāb Hirmis al-ḥakīm (The book of Hermes the Wise) is a text on invocations, magical incantations, and medicinal draughts used for the treatment of maladies. The purported author, Hermes Trismegistus (Thrice-great Hermes), was a legendary figure in the classical Greek, Roman, and Islamic worlds, to whom a large corpus of writing was attributed. The book is organized according to the Arabic letters arranged in the abjad system (alifbā’jīmdāl and so forth). The discussion for each letter begins with a diagnosis of an adult male who is the ...

Contributed by Wellcome Library

The Story of a Pilgrimage to Hijaz

The Story of a Pilgrimage to Hijaz

Sultan Jahan Begum (1858‒1930), also known as Sultan Kaikhusrau Jahan Begum, was the last of four women nawabs (governors) who ruled the princely state of Bhopal during the British Raj. First established in central India in 1724, Bhopal was an independent state before it became a British protectorate in 1818. The state merged with independent India in 1949 and is now part of Madhya Pradesh. The rule of the begums, as this era of women rulers in Bhopal came to be known, started with Qudsia Begum in 1819, and ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

A Modern Pilgrim in Mecca

A Modern Pilgrim in Mecca

Major Arthur John Byng Wavell (1882‒1916) was a British military officer, Arabist, and a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. Born in London, he was educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst. In 1900 he joined the Welsh Regiment of the British Army and sailed to British South Africa, where he fought in the Boer War. This was followed by a War Office assignment to map and report on less known British possessions in the region, during which he journeyed across the Kalahari Desert to Victoria Falls. He left the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Treatise on Arabic Poetry

Treatise on Arabic Poetry

Tratado de la Poesía Arabe (Treatise on Arabic poetry) is by Emilio Álvarez Sanz y Tubau, a translator and interpreter who was employed by the high commission that exercised administrative authority in the Spanish Moroccan protectorate. Alvarez Sanz lived in Tangier in his youth, where he was recognized as a distinguished student of Arabic. He later perfected his knowledge of Muslim law and the Arabic language at the seminary-university of the Maronite Order in Beirut. In June 1912 he was certified as a translator-interpreter, which enabled him to pursue a ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Commentary on the History of the “Amir al-Umara’” of Abu al-Fida’

Commentary on the History of the “Amir al-Umara’” of Abu al-Fida’

Commentatio exhibens historiam emirorum al omrah ex Abulfeda (Commentary on the history of the amir al-umara’ of Abu al-Fida’) is an academic study in Latin of the Islamic political and military office known as amir al-umara’ (commander of commanders). The author, Friedrich Wilhelm Carl Umbreit (1795‒1860), produced the work as a student essay in 1815 at Göttingen University. Just 20 years old at the time, Umbreit won first prize among student papers and was rewarded with publication of his essay at university expense. Although Umbreit studied with the famous ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Boat of the Wader into the Science of Inheritance Shares

The Boat of the Wader into the Science of Inheritance Shares

The versification of complex subjects to make them more understandable to students and readers used to be a common practice among Arab authors. From mathematics to grammar to jurisprudence, versification was used to make it easier to remember the rules governing a certain subject or to explain scientific concepts by taking advantage of the popularity of poetry in Arabic intellectual life. In practice, however, the use of versification posed certain challenges. While it helped bring the subject to a wider audience, substantive details sometimes were lost or not sufficiently explained ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Book of Sixty Sciences

The Book of Sixty Sciences

Kitāb al-Sittinī (The book of sixty sciences) is a scientific encyclopedia written by one of the foremost intellectuals of the 12th century, the Persian philosopher Fakhr al-Din Razi (1149 or 1150‒1210). Razi dedicated his work, which is also known as Jāmiʻ al-ʻulūm (The encyclopedia of sciences) to ʻAlaʼ ad-Din Tekish, the Khwarazmshahi ruler (reigned 1172–1200), near the beginning of the latter’s reign. As the title suggests, Razi treats 60 distinct branches of knowledge in his work, ranging from al-kalam (theology) to adab al-muluk (the conduct of kings ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Verses by Jami

Verses by Jami 

This calligraphic fragment includes verses composed by the Persian poet Jami (died 1492 [897 AH]), whose full name, Mawlana 'Abd al-Rahman Jami, is noted in the topmost panel. In larger script appears a ghazal (lyric poem) in which a lover sighs about the lack of news from his beloved. The central text frames are bordered on the right and left by illuminated panels and contain a ruba'i (iambic pentameter quatrain) written in smaller script. The quatrain encourages true and eternal love of God rather than passing infatuations: "Every beautiful ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses 

This calligraphic fragment includes verses 10-11 of the 48th chapter of the Qurʼan, entitled Surat al-Fath(Victory). This surah dates from the Medinan period and contains 29 verses. It describes how triumph comes from courage, faith, and patience if the believer stays true to God: anyone who violates His [God's] oath, does so to the harm of his own soul, and anyone who fulfils what he has convenanted with God, God will soon grant him a reward (48:10). The text is executed in Kufi script with black ink ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Qurʼanic Verses

Qurʼanic Verses 

This calligraphic fragment includes verses 85-88 of the 6th chapter of the Qurʼan entitled Surat al-An'am (The Cattle). This late Meccan surah describes the nature of God and how He reveals Himself. Verses 85-88 in particular describe a number of prophets such as Jesus, Elias, and Jonah as capable of guiding believers to the "straight path" (al-sirat al-mustaqim). The text is executed in Kufi script in black ink, at six lines per page, surrounded by a gold painted frame. Verses on the fragment's recto have worn off substantially ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Mihrab Découpage Panel

Mihrab Découpage Panel 

This piece of white paper has been carefully cut out to produce an elaborate image of interlacing vines and flowers. In the central panel, two columns border the right and left vertical frame and appear to hold an almost baroque arch in which hangs a lamp. This motif may be identified as a mihrab, or the prayer niche in the qibla wall of a mosque (i.e., the wall facing Mecca), illuminated by a hanging mosque lamp. Above the mihrab, a rectangular frame contains the words Allah, Muhammad (peace and ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Three Bayts (Verses) to a Loved One

Three Bayts (Verses) to a Loved One 

This calligraphic fragment includes three bayts (verses) of poetry in the main text panel and ten verses around this panel, creating a textual frame decorated with gold vine and leaf motifs. The entire calligraphic piece is pasted to a paper decorated with blue geometric and vegetal motifs highlighted in gold. The central text panel is topped by an illuminated rectangular panel and includes a decorative triangle in the upper left corner. The verses in the central panel are written in nasta'liq script on a white ground decorated with ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Fabric Merchant. Samarkand

Fabric Merchant. Samarkand

This photograph shows a merchant at the market in Samarkand (present-day Uzbekistan) displaying silk, cotton, and wool fabrics, as well as a few traditional carpets. A framed page of the Qurʼan hangs at the top of the stall. Founded around 700 BC, Samarkand is one of the oldest cities in the world. It is best known for its central position on the Silk Road between China and the West and for being an Islamiccenter of learning. The image is by Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944), who used ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Shares According to Siraj

The Shares According to Siraj

Sirāj al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad 'Sajāwandī was a 12th-century Hanafi jurist whose treatise on the laws of inheritance is regarded as the most important work in this field. This edition of his influential work was published in Lahore, Pakistan (then a part of British India), in 1886 or 1887. The English philologist and jurist Sir William Jones (1746-94) published the first English translation of this work in Kolkata (Calcutta), in 1792. Islamic inheritance law is a complex and refined system of rules that developed over several centuries, and that is ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

A Friendly Gift on the Science of Arithmetic

A Friendly Gift on the Science of Arithmetic

This treatise deals specifically with basic arithmetic, as needed for computing the division of inheritance according to Islamic law. It contains 48 folios and is divided into an introduction, three chapters, and a conclusion. The introduction discusses the idea of numbers as an introduction to the science of arithmetic. Chapter I discusses the multiplication of integers. Chapter II is on the division of integers and the computation of common factors. Chapter III deals extensively with fractions and arithmetic operations on them. The author, an Egyptian jurist and mathematician, was the ...

Contributed by National Library and Archives of Egypt

Arab Hajji, Probably in Batavia

Arab Hajji, Probably in Batavia

This carte-de-visite photograph depicts an Arab in the Dutch colonial capital of Batavia (present-day Jakarta) preparing for the hajj. The Arabs in Southeast Asia generally were from the area of Hadramaut in the southern part of Arabia. During the 19th century, the number of Arabs immigrating to Asia increased, but they remained tied to their homeland and often used the wealth acquired in their new homes to finance projects in Arabia. Despite sharing their Muslim faith with native Indonesians, Arabs maintained separate communities, particularly during the colonial period. The photograph ...

Contributed by Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and the Caribbean Studies KITLV

Flowers of Abu Ma'shar

Flowers of Abu Ma'shar

Ja‘far ibn Muḥammad al-Balkhī (787–886), known as Abū Ma‘shar, lived in Baghdad in the 9th century. Originally an Islamic scholar of the Hadith (the prophetic traditions of Muhammad) and a contemporary of the famous philosopher al-Kindī, Abu Ma’shar developed an interest in astrology at the relatively late age of 47. He became the most important and prolific writer on astrology in the Middle Ages. His discourses incorporated and expanded upon the studies of earlier scholars of Islamic, Persian, Greek, and Mesopotamian origin. His works were translated ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

Introduction to Astronomy, Containing the Eight Divided Books of Abu Ma'shar Abalachus

Introduction to Astronomy, Containing the Eight Divided Books of Abu Ma'shar Abalachus

Ja‘far ibn Muḥammad al-Balkhī (787–886), known as Abū Ma‘shar, lived in Baghdad in the 9th century. Originally an Islamic scholar of the hadith (the prophetic traditions of Muhammad) and a contemporary of the famous philosopher al-Kindī, Abū Ma‘shar developed an interest in astrology at the relatively late age of 47. He became the most important and prolific writer on astrology in the Middle Ages. His discourses incorporated and expanded upon the studies of earlier scholars of Islamic, Persian, Greek, and Mesopotamian origin. His works were translated ...

Contributed by Qatar National Library

Qurʼan

Qurʼan

This 19th-century manuscript Qurʼan is in a Nashki script with diacritical marks in black. Nashki was the calligraphic style used for the most beautiful Qurʼans of the period, because of its small size and great delicacy. The first two pages are elaborately illuminated in green, blue, and red on a gold background. The titles of the surahs (chapters) are in gold. The borders are in gold, blue, and red. The colophon is illuminated in gold and colors. Probably of Persian origin, this Qurʼan was copied in Arabic by Kohazadeh Ahmad ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Light of the Glitter in Mathematics

The Light of the Glitter in Mathematics

This work is a versified treatise on arithmetic (‘ilam al- ḥisāb), and specifically the art of dividing inheritance (farā’iḍ), which has application in Islamic law. After a standard expression of praise for the Prophet, his companions, and later followers, the text introduces the system of place values and explains multiplication of multi-digit whole numbers and simple and compound fractions. The text presents multiple examples that are described in verbal terms. As noted at the end of the manuscript, which was completed on Monday, 20 Rabī‘ I of the year ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Keys of Mercy and the Secrets of Wisdom

The Keys of Mercy and the Secrets of Wisdom

This manuscript is an invaluable source for understanding alchemical doctrines and practices in the Islamic world during the Middle Ages. Its author, the polymath Mu‛ayyad al-Dīn al-Tuġrā’ī, was born in 1062 AD in Persia (present-day Iran) and worked as a secretary in the Seljuk court. He later was appointed vizier in Mosul (present-day Iraq), but his career came to a dramatic end in 1121, when, following the disgrace of his protector, he was falsely accused of heresy and beheaded. Notes on al-Tuġrā’ī’s biography were added to ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

The Burdah Poem

The Burdah Poem

This illuminated small codex contains a famous poem in honor of the Prophet Muhammad popularly known as “Qaṣīdat al-Burdah” (The poem of the mantle), which was composed by Sharaf al-Dīn Muḥammad al-Būṣīrī (died 694 AH [1294 CE]). This copy was executed in a variety of scripts, probably in Iran, by Ḥabīb Allāh ibn Dūst Muḥammad al-Khwārizmī in the 11th century AH (17th century CE). The first page (folio 1b) of the manuscript features an illuminated rectangular headpiece with five inner panels of text executed in the following scripts: muhaqqaq (gold ...

Contributed by Walters Art Museum

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Grave Where the Sepulcher of the Saint Stands. Grave of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) Who Died in 57 A.H.

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Grave Where the Sepulcher of the Saint Stands. Grave of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) Who Died in 57 A.H.

This sketch of the interior of the Kusam-ibn-Abbas Mausoleum in the northern cluster of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. The Shah-i ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Section of the Foundation inside the Tomb

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Section of the Foundation inside the Tomb

This sketch of the interior of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for “tomb of the ruler”). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Interior of the Tomb. View of the Family Crypt of Tamerlane

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Interior of the Tomb. View of the Family Crypt of Tamerlane

This striking sketch of the crypt at the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for “tomb of the ruler”). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Plans, Elevations, and Sections

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Plans, Elevations, and Sections

This plan, elevation and sections of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for "tomb of the ruler"), which suffered major damage over the centuries. Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). One of the Doors

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). One of the Doors

This sketch of a door at the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for “tomb of the ruler”). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Khodzha Abdu-Deruni Ishrat-Khan. Plans, Elevations, and Sections

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Khodzha Abdu-Deruni Ishrat-Khan. Plans, Elevations, and Sections

These plans, sections and elevations of two memorial complexes in Samarkand, (Uzbekistan) are from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. The upper drawings include the plan of the Khodzha Abdu-Derun memorial complex dedicated to a revered 9th century Arab judge of the Abdi clan, with the ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Kutbi-Chaardakhum (Sheikh Nuredin Basir) and Kok Tam. Plans, Elevations, and Sections

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Kutbi-Chaardakhum (Sheikh Nuredin Basir) and Kok Tam. Plans, Elevations, and Sections

These plans, sections and elevations of structures at the Kok Tam [sic] palace in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. On the left of this page is a plan, section and elevation of the large 16th-century mausoleum dedicated to the spiritual leader ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleums of Rukhabad and Ak Sarai. Plans, Facades, and Sections

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleums of Rukhabad and Ak Sarai. Plans, Facades, and Sections

These plans, elevations and sections of two mausoleums in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) are from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. On the left is the site plan of the mausoleum known as Rukhabad (“dwelling of the soul”), a centralized domed structure located near the Timurid mausoleum Gur-Emir ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Mosque of Khodzha Abdu-Berun. Plan, Elevation, and Sections

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mosque of Khodzha Abdu-Berun. Plan, Elevation, and Sections

This plan, section and elevation of the Khodzha Abdu-Berun memorial complex in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. The Khodzha Abdu-Berun memorial complex (khanaka) was dedicated to a revered 9th-century Arab judge of the Abdi clan, with the word berun (outer) added ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Mosque of Khodzha Akhrar and Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Plans, Elevations, and Sections

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mosque of Khodzha Akhrar and Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Plans, Elevations, and Sections

These plans, sections and elevations of the Khodzha Akhrar shrine in Samarkand (Uzbekistan), are from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. On the upper left is the site plan for a group of structures dedicated to the memory of the renowned 15th-century mystic Khodzha Akhrar (1403-89 ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Namazga Mosque. Plan, Elevation, and Sections

Antiquities of Samarkand. Namazga Mosque. Plan, Elevation, and Sections

This plan, section and elevation of the Namazga Mosque in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. A namazga mosque was specifically intended to mark Eid al-Fitr (a holiday observed at the end of the Ramadan fast), as well as Kurban, or Eid ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Shaybani Khan and Tomb of Kuchkunji Khan. Plans, Elevations, and Sections

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Shaybani Khan and Tomb of Kuchkunji Khan. Plans, Elevations, and Sections

This plan, section and elevation of the Madrasah of Shaybani Khan in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Muhammad Shaybani, subsequently known as Shaybani Khan (1451-1510), was a descendant of Genghis Khan and the founder of the short-lived Shaybanid Uzbek dynasty. In ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Tillia Kari. Plan, Elevation, and Sections

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Tillia Kari. Plan, Elevation, and Sections

These drawings of the first and second story plans, sections, and front elevation of the Tillia Kari Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) are from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Southern Side). Stone Inscription beside the Main Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Southern Side). Stone Inscription beside the Main Niche

This photograph of a stone inscription found on the southern side of the interior courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Southern Side). Inscription along the Left Side of the Main Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Southern Side). Inscription along the Left Side of the Main Niche

This photograph of the interior courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Southern Side). Inscription along the Right Side of the Main Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Southern Side). Inscription along the Right Side of the Main Niche

This photograph of the interior courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Palace of the Bukharan Emirs,

Antiquities of Samarkand. Palace of the Bukharan Emirs, "Kok Tash." Door to the Reception Hall of the Emirs

This photograph of the interior of the palace of the emirs of Bukhara in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. The emirs of Bukhara ruled Samarkand after the expulsion of the Timurids in the early 16th century. Their palace was referred to ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Palace of the Bukharan Emirs,

Antiquities of Samarkand. Palace of the Bukharan Emirs, "Kok Tash." Arch to the Reception Hall

This photograph of the interior of the palace of the emirs of Bukhara in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. The emirs of Bukhara ruled Samarkand after the expulsion of the Timurids in the early 16th century. Their ceremonial palace in the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Palace of the Bukharan Emirs,

Antiquities of Samarkand. Palace of the Bukharan Emirs, "Kok Tash." Throne of the Emir Kok Tash in the Reception Hall

This photograph of the interior of the palace of the emirs of Bukhara in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. This view shows the throne in the ceremonial palace of the emirs, who ruled Samarkand after the expulsion of the Timurids in ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Palace of the Bukharan Emirs,

Antiquities of Samarkand. Palace of the Bukharan Emirs, "Kok Tash." View of the Entrance to the Reception Hall (from the Courtyard)

This photograph of the gateway to the palace of the emirs of Bukhara in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. This view of the pointed entrance arch is taken from inside the courtyard of the ceremonial palace of the emirs, who ruled ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Abu Tengi. Column Base

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Abu Tengi. Column Base

This photograph of the Usto Ali mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) is revered as a ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Abu Tengi. Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Abu Tengi. Facade

This photograph of the Usto Ali mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) is revered as a ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Abu Tengi. Column Capital

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Abu Tengi. Column Capital

This photograph of the Usto Ali mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) is revered as a ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Column Base

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Column Base

This view of the Shadi Mulk mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material were Aleksandr L. Kun, an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Column Capital

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Column Capital

This view of the Shadi Mulk mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material were Aleksandr L. Kun, an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Detail of Niche Panel on the External Arch (Below)

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Detail of Niche Panel on the External Arch (Below)

This photograph of an ornamental panel from the Shadi Mulk mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material were Aleksandr L. Kun, an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special attention to Samarkand ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Detail of Niche Panel on the External Arch (Above)

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Detail of Niche Panel on the External Arch (Above)

This photograph of the Shadi Mulk mausoleum at the Kusam-ibn-Abbas necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material were Aleksandr L. Kun, an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. View of the Facade from the North

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. View of the Facade from the North

This photograph of the Shadi Mulk mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material were Aleksandr L. Kun, an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Front of the Entry Niche, Arches from Outside

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Front of the Entry Niche, Arches from Outside

This view of the main entrance portal (darvozakhana) of the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The lavish edition in six volumes was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material were Aleksandr L. Kun, an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special attention to Samarkand’s ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Akhmad Khodzha. Section of Detail from the External Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Akhmad Khodzha. Section of Detail from the External Facade

This photograph of a facade detail of the Khodzha Akhmad mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Akhmad Khodzha. Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Akhmad Khodzha. Facade

This photograph of the Khodzha Akhmad mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) is revered as a ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Akhmad Khodzha. Detail of the Inner Arched-Niche Panel

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Akhmad Khodzha. Detail of the Inner Arched-Niche Panel

This photograph of a facade detail from an unidentified mausoleum in the northern cluster of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Aine Khane (Emir Mussa). Section of Detail on the Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Aine Khane (Emir Mussa). Section of Detail on the Facade

This photograph of a facade detail at the Tuman-Aka mausoleum within the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Of particular note is Shah-i Zindah (Persian ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Aine Khane (Emir Mussa). Section of Detail on the Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Aine Khane (Emir Mussa). Section of Detail on the Facade

This photograph of a facade detail at the Tuman-Aka mausoleum within the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Of particular note is Shah-i Zindah (Persian ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Aine Khane (Emir Mussa). Inscriptions to the Right of the Front

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Aine Khane (Emir Mussa). Inscriptions to the Right of the Front

This photograph of the right side of the façade of the Tuman-Aka mausoleum within the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Of particular note is ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of the Aine Khane (Emir Mussa). Inscription Dating the Building Construction to the Left of the Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of the Aine Khane (Emir Mussa). Inscription Dating the Building Construction to the Left of the Facade

This photograph of ceramic tile ornament on the Tuglu-Tekin (Emir Hussein) mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of the Aine Khane (Emir Mussa). Inscriptions on the Upper Left Panel of the Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of the Aine Khane (Emir Mussa). Inscriptions on the Upper Left Panel of the Niche

This photograph of decorative ceramic work at the Tuman-Aka mausoleum within the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Of particular note is Shah-i Zindah (Persian ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of the Aine Khane (Emir Mussa). Inscription on the Upper Right Panel of the Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of the Aine Khane (Emir Mussa). Inscription on the Upper Right Panel of the Niche

This photograph of decorative ceramic work at the Tuman-Aka mausoleum within the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Of particular note is Shah-i Zindah (Persian ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of the Aine Khane (Emir Mussa). Upper Detail of the Inner Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of the Aine Khane (Emir Mussa). Upper Detail of the Inner Niche

This photograph of the upper part of the entrance arch to the Tuman-Aka mausoleum within the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Of particular note ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Chuchun Bek. Section of Inscription Around the Former Entry Door

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Chuchun Bek. Section of Inscription Around the Former Entry Door

This photograph of ornamentation on the Emir-Zade mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material were Aleksandr L. Kun, an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special attention to Samarkand’s Islamicarchitecture ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Chuchun Bek. Inscription on the Left Panel Facing the Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Chuchun Bek. Inscription on the Left Panel Facing the Niche

This photograph of ornamentation on the Emir-Zade mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material were Aleksandr L. Kun, an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special attention to Samarkand’s Islamicarchitecture ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Chuchun Bek. View from the North Toward the Mausoleums of Chuchun Bek and Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Chuchun Bek. View from the North Toward the Mausoleums of Chuchun Bek and Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka

This view of mausoleums at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material were Aleksandr L. Kun, an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of the Daughter of Emir Khodzha Toglu Tekin. Column Base

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of the Daughter of Emir Khodzha Toglu Tekin. Column Base

This photograph of a facade detail from an unidentified mausoleum in the northern cluster of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of the Daughter of Emir Khodzha Toglu Tekin. Column Capital

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of the Daughter of Emir Khodzha Toglu Tekin. Column Capital

This photograph of a column detail at the Tuman-Aka mausoleum within the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Of particular note is Shah-i Zindah (Persian ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of the Daughter of Emir Khodzha Toglu Tekin. Inscription on the Lower Left Side of the Front

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of the Daughter of Emir Khodzha Toglu Tekin. Inscription on the Lower Left Side of the Front

This photograph of the facade of the Toglu Tekin (Emir Hussein) Mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of the Daughter of Emir Khodzha Toglu Tekin. Inscription on the Upper Left Side of the Front

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of the Daughter of Emir Khodzha Toglu Tekin. Inscription on the Upper Left Side of the Front

This photograph of the facade of the Toglu Tekin (Emir Hussein) Mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of the Daughter of Emir Khodzha Toglu Tekin. Inscription Above a Former Entryway

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of the Daughter of Emir Khodzha Toglu Tekin. Inscription Above a Former Entryway

This photograph of a facade fragment at the Toglu Tekin (Emir Hussein) Mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of the Daughter of Emir Khodzha Toglu Tekin. View of the Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of the Daughter of Emir Khodzha Toglu Tekin. View of the Facade

This photograph of the Tuman-Aka mausoleum within the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Of particular note is Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”), revered ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Tamerlane's Daughter, Toglu Tekin. Column Base

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Tamerlane's Daughter, Toglu Tekin. Column Base

This photograph of a column on the facade of the Toglu Tekin (Emir Hussein) Mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material were Aleksandr L. Kun, an orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Tamerlane's Daughter, Toglu Tekin. Column Capital

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Tamerlane's Daughter, Toglu Tekin. Column Capital

This photograph of a column capital on the facade of the Toglu Tekin (Emir Hussein) Mausoleum at the Shakh-i-Zinda necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material were Aleksandr L. Kun, an orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Tamerlane's Daughter, Toglu Tekin. View of the Front

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Tamerlane's Daughter, Toglu Tekin. View of the Front

This photograph of the facade of the Toglu Tekin (Emir Hussein) Mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Hussein. Inscription to the Left Half of the Facade (Bottom)

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Hussein. Inscription to the Left Half of the Facade (Bottom)

This photograph of ornamentation on the Emir-Zade mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material were Aleksandr L. Kun, an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special attention to Samarkand’s Islamicarchitecture ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Hussein. Inscription on the Right Half of the Facade. Lower Section

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Hussein. Inscription on the Right Half of the Facade. Lower Section

This photograph of ceramic tile ornament on the Emir-Zade mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Built on the site of an ancient ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Hussein. Inscription on the Right Half of the Facade. Upper Section

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Hussein. Inscription on the Right Half of the Facade. Upper Section

This photograph of ceramic tile ornament on the Emir-Zade mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material were Aleksandr L. Kun, an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special attention to Samarkand’s ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Abu Tengi. Inscription on the Left Side of the Facade (Top)

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Abu Tengi. Inscription on the Left Side of the Facade (Top)

This photograph of the Usto Ali mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) is revered as a ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Abu Tengi. Inscription on the Right Side of the Facade. Bottom

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Abu Tengi. Inscription on the Right Side of the Facade. Bottom

This photograph of the Usto Ali mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) is revered as a ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Abu Tengi. Inscription on the Right Side of the Facade. Middle

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Abu Tengi. Inscription on the Right Side of the Facade. Middle

This photograph of the Usto Ali mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) is revered as a ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Assad (Abdul Khayum). Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Assad (Abdul Khayum). Facade

This photograph of the ruins of an unidentified mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material in the archeological volumes were Aleksandr L. Kun, an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special attention ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Assad. Section of Detail on the Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Assad. Section of Detail on the Facade

This photograph of an ornamental detail from an unidentified mausoleum in the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devoted special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Of particular note is Shah-i Zindah (Persian ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Assad. Column Capital

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Assad. Column Capital

This photograph of a column detail from an unidentified mausoleum in the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devoted special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Of particular note is Shah-i Zindah (Persian ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Assad. View of the Preserved Upper Section of the Entry Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Assad. View of the Preserved Upper Section of the Entry Niche

This photograph of an unidentified mausoleum in the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devoted special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Of particular note is Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”), revered ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Burunduk

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Burunduk

This southeast view of the Emir Burunduk mausoleum in the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devoted special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Of particular note is Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Column Base

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Column Base

This view of ceramic ornament at the Shadi Mulk mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material were Aleksandr L. Kun, an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special attention to Samarkand’s ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Inscription on the Left Side of the Facade (Top)

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Inscription on the Left Side of the Facade (Top)

This photograph of the main facade of the Shadi Mulk mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material were Aleksandr L. Kun, an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special attention to Samarkand ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Inscription on the Right Side of the Facade (Bottom)

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Inscription on the Right Side of the Facade (Bottom)

This photograph of the main facade of the Shadi Mulk mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material were Aleksandr L. Kun, an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special attention to Samarkand ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Inscription on the Right Side of the Facade (Top)

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Inscription on the Right Side of the Facade (Top)

This photograph of the main facade of the Shadi Mulk mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material were Aleksandr L. Kun, an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special attention to Samarkand ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Inscription on the Pedestal

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Inscription on the Pedestal

This photograph of a ceramic detail at the Shadi Mulk mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Inscription on the Pedestal

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Inscription on the Pedestal

This photograph of a ceramic detail at the Shadi Mulk mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Detail of the Upper Section on the Entry Arch

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Detail of the Upper Section on the Entry Arch

This photograph of the entrance arch to the Shadi Mulk mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Corner Column on the Foundation

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Corner Column on the Foundation

This photograph of a facade detail at the Shadi Mulk mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material were Aleksandr L. Kun, an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special attention to Samarkand ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Entry Door

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka. Entry Door

This photograph of the entrance to the Shadi Mulk mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material were Aleksandr L. Kun, an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special attention to Samarkand’s ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Part of a Column

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Part of a Column

This photograph of the Khodzha Akhmad Mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) is revered as a ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Section of Inscription on the Front Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Section of Inscription on the Front Facade

This photograph of a decorative inscription from an unidentified mausoleum in the northern cluster of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis (Samarkand, Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Section of Inscription on the Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Section of Inscription on the Facade

This photograph of a facade detail of the Khodzha Akhmad Mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Section of Inscription inside the Mausoleum

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Section of Inscription inside the Mausoleum

This photograph shows a wall fragment of the interior of an unidentified mausoleum in the northern cluster of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis (Samarkand, Uzbekistan). The photograph is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album, a six-volume survey produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Section of Detail on the Front Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Section of Detail on the Front Facade

This photograph of a decorative band on the facade of an unidentified mausoleum in the northern cluster of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis (Samarkand, Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Section of Detail on the Side of the Front Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Section of Detail on the Side of the Front Niche

This photograph of a decorative panel from an unidentified mausoleum in the northern cluster of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis (Samarkand, Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamicarchitecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Detail of Various Parts of the Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Detail of Various Parts of the Facade

This photograph of decorative facade detail from an unidentified mausoleum in the northern cluster of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis (Samarkand, Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap

This photograph shows the upper part of the facade arch (peshtak) of an unidentified mausoleum in the northern cluster of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis (Samarkand, Uzbekistan). The photograph is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album, a six-volume survey produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap

This photograph of the facade of an unidentified mausoleum in the northern cluster of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis (Samarkand, Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamicarchitecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Of particular ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Column Capital

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Column Capital

This photograph of a facade detail of the Khodzha Akhmad Mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Column Capital of the Front Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Column Capital of the Front Facade

This photograph of the facade of an unidentified mausoleum in the northern cluster of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis (Samarkand, Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamicarchitecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Of particular ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Inscription on the Arched-Niche Panel

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Inscription on the Arched-Niche Panel

This photograph of a decorative panel from an unidentified mausoleum in the northern cluster of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis (Samarkand, Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamicarchitecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Detail of the Mausoleum Walls

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Detail of the Mausoleum Walls

This photograph shows a wall fragment of the interior of an unidentified mausoleum in the northern cluster of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis (Samarkand, Uzbekistan). The photograph is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album, a six-volume survey produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Detail of a Corner of the Mausoleum

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. Detail of a Corner of the Mausoleum

This photograph shows the interior corner of an unidentified mausoleum in the northern cluster of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis (Samarkand, Uzbekistan). The photograph was included in the archeological part of Turkestan Album, a six-volume survey produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. View of the Front

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. View of the Front

This photograph, taken from the roof of the Tuman-Aka Mausoleum, shows the facade of an unidentified mausoleum in the northern cluster of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis (Samarkand, Uzbekistan). The photograph is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album, a six-volume survey produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. View of an Upper Section in Ruins

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. View of an Upper Section in Ruins

This photograph shows the interior of an unidentified mausoleum in the northern cluster of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis (Samarkand, Uzbekistan). The photograph was included in the archeological part of Turkestan Album, a six-volume survey produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamicarchitecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. View of an Upper Section in Ruins

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Sha Arap. View of an Upper Section in Ruins

This photograph shows the interior of an unidentified mausoleum in the northern cluster of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis (Samarkand, Uzbekistan). The photograph is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album, a six-volume survey produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Of particular ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Shah-i Zindah. General View from the East towards the Tombs of Shirin Bika, Chugun-Bek-Aka and Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Shah-i Zindah. General View from the East towards the Tombs of Shirin Bika, Chugun-Bek-Aka and Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka

This photograph of the middle group of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Of particular note is the Shah-i Zindah (Persian for ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Shirin Bika. View of the Front

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Shirin Bika. View of the Front

This photograph of the facade of the Shirin Bika Aka Mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Of particular note is the Shah-i ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleums of Uldzh Inak and Bibi Zinet. View of the Mausoleums of Tamerlane's Benefactress and Her Daughter (Uldzk Inak and Bibi Zinet)

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleums of Uldzh Inak and Bibi Zinet. View of the Mausoleums of Tamerlane's Benefactress and Her Daughter (Uldzk Inak and Bibi Zinet)

This view of a mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The lavish edition in six volumes was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material were Aleksandr L. Kun, an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleums of Uldzh Inak and Bibi Zinet. View from South of the Exterior of the Mausoleums of Chugun Bek and Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleums of Uldzh Inak and Bibi Zinet. View from South of the Exterior of the Mausoleums of Chugun Bek and Kutuluk Turdi Bek Aka

This dramatic view of mausoleums at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The lavish edition in six volumes was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material were Aleksandr L. Kun, an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mosque (khanaka) of Shah-i Zindah. View of the Mihrab Prayer Niche in the Rauza Mosque (in Front of Shah-i Zindah)

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mosque (khanaka) of Shah-i Zindah. View of the Mihrab Prayer Niche in the Rauza Mosque (in Front of Shah-i Zindah)

This interior photograph of the mosque at the Kusam-ibn-Abbas memorial ensemble in the northern cluster of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mosque of Shah-i Zindah. General View from the South

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mosque of Shah-i Zindah. General View from the South

This photograph of the Kusam-ibn-Abbas memorial ensemble in the northern cluster of shrines at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Inscription on the Left Panel of the Entry Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Inscription on the Left Panel of the Entry Niche

This photograph of an inscription on the left side of the entry way to the Shah-i Zindah necropolis (Samarkand, Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Of particular note is ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Inscription on the Right Panel of the Entry Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Inscription on the Right Panel of the Entry Niche

This photograph of an inscription on the right side of the entry way to the tomb of Kusam-ibn-Abbas in the Shah-i Zindah necropolis (Samarkand, Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamicarchitecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Entrance to the Chartak

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Entrance to the Chartak

This south view of the upper passage chamber, or chartak, in the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devoted special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Of particular note is Shah-i Zindah (Persian ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Interior of the Chartak. Door to the Chartak in the Mosque (khanaka) Shah-i Zindah

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Interior of the Chartak. Door to the Chartak in the Mosque (khanaka) Shah-i Zindah

This photograph of the carved door leading to the Kusam-ibn-Abbas mosque in the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material in the archeological volumes were Aleksandr L. Kun, an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii, a military engineer. They devoted ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Interior of the Chartak. Inscription on the Wall opposite the Door

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Interior of the Chartak. Inscription on the Wall opposite the Door

This photograph of an inscription inside a passage chamber, or chartak, in the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devoted special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Of particular note is Shah-i ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Interior of the Chartak. Inscription to the Right of the Door

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Interior of the Chartak. Inscription to the Right of the Door

This photograph of an inscription inside a passage chamber, or chartak, in the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devoted special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Of particular note is Shah-i ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Abu Tengi. Detail of the Arched-Niche Panel (Bottom)

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Abu Tengi. Detail of the Arched-Niche Panel (Bottom)

This photograph of the Usto Ali mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) is revered as a ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Abu Tengi. Detail of the Arched-Niche Panel (Top)

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Abu Tengi. Detail of the Arched-Niche Panel (Top)

This photograph of the Usto Ali mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) is revered as a ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Abu Tengi. Right Side of the Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Emir Abu Tengi. Right Side of the Facade

This photograph of the Usto Ali mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) is revered as a ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Shirin Bika. Section of Inscription of the Left Side of the Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Shirin Bika. Section of Inscription of the Left Side of the Facade

This photograph of the facade of the Shirin Bika Aka Mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Of particular note is the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Shirin Bika. Section of Inscription of the Right Side of the Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. Mausoleum of Shirin Bika. Section of Inscription of the Right Side of the Facade

This photograph of the facade of the Shirin Bika Aka Mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Of particular note is the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah). Mausoleum of Shirin Bika. View of Various Upper Sections of the Entry Niche. Left Side

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah). Mausoleum of Shirin Bika. View of Various Upper Sections of the Entry Niche. Left Side

This photograph of the facade of the Shirin Bika Aka Mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Of particular note is the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah). Mausoleum of Shirin Bika. View of Various Upper Sections of the Entry Niche. Right Side

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah). Mausoleum of Shirin Bika. View of Various Upper Sections of the Entry Niche. Right Side

This photograph of the facade of the Shirin Bika Aka Mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Of particular note is the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah). Mausoleum of Shirin Bika. View of Various Upper Sections of the Entry Niche. Middle

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of the Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah). Mausoleum of Shirin Bika. View of Various Upper Sections of the Entry Niche. Middle

This photograph of the facade of the Shirin Bika Aka Mausoleum at the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Of particular note is the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. General View of the South (Entrance)

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. General View of the South (Entrance)

This view of the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. This lavish edition was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of Konstantin P. von Kaufman, an army general and the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The primary compilers for the visual material in the archeological part of Turkestan Album were Aleksandr L. Kun (1840-88), an Orientalist attached to the army, and Nikolai V. Bogaevskii (1843-1912), a military engineer. Samarkand is among the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. General View from the Northwest

Antiquities of Samarkand. Tomb of Saint Kusam-ibn-Abbas (Shah-i Zindah) and Adjacent Mausoleums. General View from the Northwest

This photograph of the tomb of Kusam-ibn-Abbas in the Shah-i Zindah necropolis (Samarkand, Uzbekistan) as viewed from the northwest is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Of particular note is Shah-i ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Ishrat-Khan, Ruins of the Summer Palace of Tamerlane. Lateral Facade (Southern)

Antiquities of Samarkand. Ishrat-Khan, Ruins of the Summer Palace of Tamerlane. Lateral Facade (Southern)

This photograph of the Ishrat-khan shrine in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. The caption for this photograph states that Ishrat-khan (“house of joy”) was the summer palace of Timur (Tamerlane), and there have been recent claims that such was indeed the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Ishrat-Khan, Ruins of the Summer Palace of Tamerlane. Main Facade (Western)

Antiquities of Samarkand. Ishrat-Khan, Ruins of the Summer Palace of Tamerlane. Main Facade (Western)

This striking photograph of the Ishrat-khan shrine in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. The caption for this photograph states that Ishrat-khan (“house of joy”) was the summer palace of Timur (Tamerlane), and there have been recent claims that such was indeed ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Ak Sarai Mausoleum. General View

Antiquities of Samarkand. Ak Sarai Mausoleum. General View

This photograph of the Ak Sarai mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Although relatively modest in appearance, the Ak Sarai mausoleum is one of the more important burial shrines in Samarkand by virtue of its association with the Timurid dynasty ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Chupan-Ata and Bridges of Shadman Malik and Char Minar. Plans, Elevations, and Sections

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Chupan-Ata and Bridges of Shadman Malik and Char Minar. Plans, Elevations, and Sections

These plans, sections and elevations of the Chupan-Ata mausoleum and other structures in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) are from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. At the top of the plans are an elevation and section of the mid-15th century Chupan-Ata mausoleum (mazar), with plans of the ground ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Section of Marble Lattice-Work Surrounding the Gravestone

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Section of Marble Lattice-Work Surrounding the Gravestone

This photograph of the interior of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for “tomb of the ruler”). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Part of the Foundation inside the Mausoleum

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Part of the Foundation inside the Mausoleum

This photograph of the interior of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for "tomb of the ruler"). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Part of a Corner Column of the Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Part of a Corner Column of the Facade

This photograph of a facade detail at the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for "tomb of the ruler"). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Main Door on the Northern Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Main Door on the Northern Facade

This photograph of the interior of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for "tomb of the ruler"). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Column Capital and Section of Detail on the Northern Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Column Capital and Section of Detail on the Northern Facade

This photograph of a detail on the north facade of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for "tomb of the ruler"). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Inscription on One of the Doors

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Inscription on One of the Doors

This photograph of a door panel at the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for “tomb of the ruler”). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Inscription over the Door in the Corridor

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Inscription over the Door in the Corridor

This photograph of an arch niche at the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for “tomb of the ruler”). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Inscriptions around the Frieze of the Entire Front

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Inscriptions around the Frieze of the Entire Front

This photograph of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for "tomb of the ruler"). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to commemorate the death ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Inscription along the Sides and inside the Main Entry Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Inscription along the Sides and inside the Main Entry Niche

This remarkable photograph of a detail of the entrance arch to the courtyard of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for “tomb of the ruler”). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Inscription along the Sides and inside the Main Entry Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Inscription along the Sides and inside the Main Entry Niche

This photograph of a detail of the main entrance arch to the courtyard of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for "tomb of the ruler"). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Inscription along the Sides and inside the Main Entry Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Inscription along the Sides and inside the Main Entry Niche

This photograph of a detail of the entrance arch to the courtyard of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for "tomb of the ruler"). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Inscription along the Sides and inside the Main Entry Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Inscription along the Sides and inside the Main Entry Niche

This photograph of a detail of the entrance arch to the courtyard of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for "tomb of the ruler"). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Decorations on the Main Entry Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Emir Timur Kuragan (Gur-Emir). Decorations on the Main Entry Niche

This photograph of ceramic work on the entrance arch to the courtyard of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for “tomb of the ruler”). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Emir Timur Kuragan. View of the Northern Facade of the Mausoleum

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Emir Timur Kuragan. View of the Northern Facade of the Mausoleum

This photograph of the Gur-Emir mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage, including Gur-Emir (Persian for "tomb of the ruler"). Although known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to commemorate the death ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Guri Bibi Khanym. General View of the Mausoleum

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Guri Bibi Khanym. General View of the Mausoleum

This photograph of the Bibi Khanym mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. The mausoleum was built at the same time as the nearby main mosque (1399-1405 ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Khodzha Abdu-Derun. General View of the Gallery for Contemplation of the Saint's Tomb

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Khodzha Abdu-Derun. General View of the Gallery for Contemplation of the Saint's Tomb

This photograph of the Khodzha Abdu-Derun mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. The Khodzha Abdu-Derun memorial complex was dedicated to a revered 9th-century Arab judge of the Abdi clan, with the word derun (inner) added to signify its location within ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Khodzha Abdu-Derun. General View of the Mausoleum from the Southwest

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Khodzha Abdu-Derun. General View of the Mausoleum from the Southwest

This photograph of the Khodzha Abdu-Derun mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. The Khodzha Abdu-Derun memorial complex was dedicated to a revered 9th-century Arab judge of the Abdi clan, with the word derun (inner) added to signify its location within ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Khodzha Abdu-Derun. Window from the Tomb of the Saint Looking out into the Gallery Called a Ziaretga

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Khodzha Abdu-Derun. Window from the Tomb of the Saint Looking out into the Gallery Called a Ziaretga

This photograph of the Khodzha Abdu-Derun mausoleum in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. The Khodzha Abdu-Derun memorial complex was dedicated to a revered 9th-century Arab judge of the Abdi clan, with the word derun (inner) added to signify its location within ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Saint Sheikh Nuredin Basir Kutbi-Chaardakhum. General View from the South

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of the Saint Sheikh Nuredin Basir Kutbi-Chaardakhum. General View from the South

This photograph of a mausoleum at the Bukhara emir’s palace in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. At the center of this view is a mausoleum dedicated to the spiritual leader Sheikh Nuredin Basir. Although lacking the complexity of 15th-century centralized ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Tuman-Aka Nuri. Section of Detail to the Side Entrance Niche of the Tuman-Aka Mausoleum

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Tuman-Aka Nuri. Section of Detail to the Side Entrance Niche of the Tuman-Aka Mausoleum

This photograph of a ceramic detail of the small mosque adjacent to the Tuman-Aka mausoleum in the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Of particular ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Tuman-Aka Nuri. Inscription on the Wall of the Tuman Aki Mausoleum

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Tuman-Aka Nuri. Inscription on the Wall of the Tuman Aki Mausoleum

This photograph of a detail on the facade of the khanaka (pilgrims’ lodge) attached to the Tuman-Aka memorial mosque in the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Tuman-Aka Nuri. Inscription in the External Niche of the Nuri Mausoleum

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mausoleum of Tuman-Aka Nuri. Inscription in the External Niche of the Nuri Mausoleum

This photograph of a facade detail at the Tuman-Aka mausoleum in the Shah-i Zindah necropolis in Samarkand is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general, in 1867-82, of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Tamerlane and his successors. Of particular note is Shah-i Zindah (Persian ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Shrine of Chupan-Ata. General View from the Southwest

Antiquities of Samarkand. Shrine of Chupan-Ata. General View from the Southwest

This photograph of the Chupan-Ata mausoleum on the outskirts of Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. This view of the mid-15th century Chupan-Ata mausoleum (mazar) reveals severe damage to both the structure and the dome, as well as to the surrounding wall ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Mosque of Khodzha Akhrar. Prayer Niche (mihrab) in the Mosque

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mosque of Khodzha Akhrar. Prayer Niche (mihrab) in the Mosque

This photograph of the Khodzha Akhrar shrine in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Dedicated to the memory of the renowned 15th-century mystic Khodzha Akhrar (1403-89), the shrine contained several structures, including a winter and a summer mosque, as well as a ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mosque of Khodzha Abdu-Berun. Tomb (sagana) of the Saint

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mosque of Khodzha Abdu-Berun. Tomb (sagana) of the Saint

This photograph of the grave at the Khodzha Abdu-Berun memorial complex in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. The Khodzha Abdu-Berun ensemble was dedicated to a revered 9th-century Arab judge of the Abdi clan, with the word berun (outer) added to specify ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Mosque of Khodzha Abdu-Berun. Prayer Niche (mihrab) on a Panel of the Main Arch of the Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mosque of Khodzha Abdu-Berun. Prayer Niche (mihrab) on a Panel of the Main Arch of the Facade

This photograph of the mausoleum at the Khodzha Abdu-Berun memorial complex in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. The Khodzha Abdu-Berun memorial complex (khanaka) was dedicated to a revered 9th-century Arab judge of the Abdi clan, with the word berun (outer) added ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mosque of Khodzha Abdu-Berun. View of the Mosque from the Northwest

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mosque of Khodzha Abdu-Berun. View of the Mosque from the Northwest

This photograph of the mausoleum at the Khodzha Abdu-Berun memorial complex in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. The Khodzha Abdu-Berun memorial complex (khanaka) was dedicated to a revered 9th-century Arab judge of the Abdi clan, with the word berun (outer) added ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mosque of Khodzha Akhrar. Bottom. Inscription on the Tombstone at the Grave of Khodzha Akhrar

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mosque of Khodzha Akhrar. Bottom. Inscription on the Tombstone at the Grave of Khodzha Akhrar

This photograph of the interior of the Khodzha Akhrar shrine in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Seen here is the bottom half of the tombstone at the grave of Khodzha Akhrar (1403-89), a renowned 15th-century mystic, ascetic, and adherent of Sufism ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Mosque of Khodzha Akhrar. Top. Inscription on the Tombstone at the Grave of Khodzha Akhrar

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mosque of Khodzha Akhrar. Top. Inscription on the Tombstone at the Grave of Khodzha Akhrar

This photograph of the interior of the Khodzha Akhrar shrine in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Seen here is the tombstone at the grave of Khodzha Akhrar (1403-89), a renowned 15th-century mystic, ascetic, and adherent of Sufism who wielded great spiritual ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mosque of Khodzha Akhrar. View toward the Mosque

Antiquities of Samarkand. Mosque of Khodzha Akhrar. View toward the Mosque

This photograph of the Khodzha Akhrar shrine in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Dedicated to the memory of the renowned 15th-century mystic Khodzha Akhrar, the shrine contained several structures, including a winter and a summer mosque, as well as a minaret ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Namazga Mosque. Section of the Main Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Namazga Mosque. Section of the Main Facade

This dramatic photograph of the Namazga Mosque in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. A namazga mosque was intended to mark Eid al-Fitr (a holiday observed at the end of the Ramadan fast), as well as Kurban, or Eid al-Adha, the Festival ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Namazga Mosque. View of the Mosque from the Northwest

Antiquities of Samarkand. Namazga Mosque. View of the Mosque from the Northwest

This photograph of the Namazga Mosque in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. A namazga mosque was intended specifically to mark Eid al-Fitr (a holiday observed at the end of the Ramadan fast), as well as Kurban, or Eid al-Adha, the Festival ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Inscriptions Around the Inner Main Niche in Front of the Door from Outside

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Inscriptions Around the Inner Main Niche in Front of the Door from Outside

This photograph of the Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Located next to the Khodzha Akhrar shrine, this madrasah(religious school) was completed in 1631 by Nadir Divan-Begi, vizier and uncle of the Bukharan ruler Imam-Quli Khan. The ...

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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Inscriptions Around the Inner Main Niche in Front of the Door from Outside

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Inscriptions Around the Inner Main Niche in Front of the Door from Outside

This photograph of the Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Located next to the Khodzha Akhrar shrine, this madrasah(religious school) was completed in 1631 by Nadir Divan-Begi, vizier and uncle of the Bukharan ruler Imam-Quli Khan. The ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Inscriptions Around the Inner Main Niche in Front of the Door from Outside

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Inscriptions Around the Inner Main Niche in Front of the Door from Outside

This photograph of the Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Located next to the Khodzha Akhrar shrine, this madrasah(religious school) was completed in 1631 by Nadir Divan-Begi, vizier and uncle of the Bukharan ruler Imam-Quli Khan. The ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Inscriptions Around the Main Niche of the Southern Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Inscriptions Around the Main Niche of the Southern Facade

This photograph of the Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Located next to the Khodzha Akhrar shrine, this madrasah(religious school) was completed in 1631 by Nadir Divan-Begi, vizier and uncle of the Bukharan ruler Imam-Quli Khan. The ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Inscriptions Around the Main Niche of the Southern Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Inscriptions Around the Main Niche of the Southern Facade

This photograph of the Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Located next to the Khodzha Akhrar shrine, this madrasah(religious school) was completed in 1631 by Nadir Divan-Begi, vizier and uncle of the Bukharan ruler Imam-Quli Khan. The ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Inscriptions Around the Main Niche of the Northern Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Inscriptions Around the Main Niche of the Northern Facade

This photograph of the Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Located next to the Khodzha Akhrar shrine, this madrasah(religious school) was completed in 1631 by Nadir Divan-Begi, vizier and uncle of the Bukharan ruler Imam-Quli Khan. The ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Inscriptions Around the Main Niche of the Northern Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Inscriptions Around the Main Niche of the Northern Facade

This photograph of the Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Located next to the Khodzha Akhrar shrine, this madrasah(religious school) was completed in 1631 by Nadir Divan-Begi, vizier and uncle of the Bukharan ruler Imam-Quli Khan. The ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi, Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Column Base

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi, Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Column Base

This photograph of the Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Located next to the Khodzha Akhrar shrine, this madrasah(religious school) was completed in 1631 by Nadir Divan-Begi, vizier and uncle of the Bukharan ruler Imam-Quli Khan. The ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi, Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Column Base

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi, Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Column Base

This photograph of a detail of the mosque at the Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Located next to the Khodzha Akhrar shrine, this madrasah (religious school) was completed in 1631 by Nadir Divan-Begi, vizier and uncle of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi, Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Inscriptions of the Inner Niche of the Main Entry Above a Window

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi, Congregational Mosque (Friday Mosque). Inscriptions of the Inner Niche of the Main Entry Above a Window

This photograph of the mosque at the Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Located next to the Khodzha Akhrar shrine, this madrasah (religious school) was completed in 1631 by Nadir Divan-Begi, vizier to the Bukharan ruler Imam-Quli Khan ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Inner Door. Inscription above the Entry to the Cells

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Inner Door. Inscription above the Entry to the Cells

This photograph of the mosque at the Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Located next to the Khodzha Akhrar shrine, this madrasah (religious school) was completed in 1631 by Nadir Divan-Begi, vizier to the Bukhara ruler Imam-Quli Khan ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Inner Door. Inscription above the Entry to the Cell

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Inner Door. Inscription above the Entry to the Cell

This photograph of the mosque at the Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Located next to the Khodzha Akhrar shrine, this madrasah (religious school) was completed in 1631 by Nadir Divan-Begi, vizier to the Bukharan ruler Imam-Quli Khan ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Inner Door. View of One-Storied Cells Surrounding the Inner Courtyard

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Inner Door. View of One-Storied Cells Surrounding the Inner Courtyard

This photograph of the Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Located next to the Khodzha Akhrar shrine, this madrasah(religious school) was completed in 1631 by Nadir Divan-Begi, vizier to the Bukharan ruler Imam-Quli Khan. The madrasah was ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Shir Dar Madrasah. Built by Yalanktush Bagadur, Vezir to Imam-Quli Khan in 1648 (1058 Hegira). View of the Main Facade (Western Side)

Antiquities of Samarkand. Shir Dar Madrasah. Built by Yalanktush Bagadur, Vezir to Imam-Quli Khan in 1648 (1058 Hegira). View of the Main Facade (Western Side)

This photograph of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of three major examples ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Shir Dar Madrasah. View of the Madrasah from the East

Antiquities of Samarkand. Shir Dar Madrasah. View of the Madrasah from the East

This photograph of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of three major examples ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Northern Side). Inscription to the Left of the Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Northern Side). Inscription to the Left of the Niche

This photograph of the interior courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Northern Side). Inscription to the Right of the Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Northern Side). Inscription to the Right of the Niche

This photograph of the interior courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Eastern Side). Inscriptions around the Inner Niche and Its Upper Sections. End

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Eastern Side). Inscriptions around the Inner Niche and Its Upper Sections. End

This photograph of the interior courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Eastern Side). Inscriptions around the Inner Niche and Its Upper Sections. Beginning

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Eastern Side). Inscriptions around the Inner Niche and Its Upper Sections. Beginning

This photograph of the interior courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Eastern Side). Inscriptions around the Inner Niche and Its Upper Sections. Center

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Eastern Side). Inscriptions around the Inner Niche and Its Upper Sections. Center

This photograph of the interior courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Eastern Side). Inscription along the Left Side of the Main Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Eastern Side). Inscription along the Left Side of the Main Niche

This photograph of the interior courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Eastern Side). Inscription around the Right Side of the Main Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Eastern Side). Inscription around the Right Side of the Main Niche

This photograph of the interior courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Eastern Side). Detail of the Upper Section of the Main Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Eastern Side). Detail of the Upper Section of the Main Niche

This photograph of the interior courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Western Side). Inscription inside the Main Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Western Side). Inscription inside the Main Niche

This photograph of the interior courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Western Side). Inscription along the Left Side of the Main Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Western Side). Inscription along the Left Side of the Main Niche

This photograph of the interior courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Western Side). Inscription along the Right Side of the Main Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Western Side). Inscription along the Right Side of the Main Niche

This photograph of the interior courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Western Side). Ornamentation Carved into the Marble Slab

Antiquities of Samarkand. Inner Courtyard of the Shir Dar Madrasah (Western Side). Ornamentation Carved into the Marble Slab

This photograph of the interior courtyard at the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Tillia Kari. Inner Courtyard (Southern Side). Main Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Tillia Kari. Inner Courtyard (Southern Side). Main Niche

This photograph of the courtyard of the Tillia Kari Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Tillia Kari. Inner Courtyard (Northern Side). View of One-Storied Cells Surrounding the Courtyard

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Tillia Kari. Inner Courtyard (Northern Side). View of One-Storied Cells Surrounding the Courtyard

This photograph of the north wall of the courtyard of the Tillia Kari Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Tillia Kari. Inner Courtyard (Northern Side). View of the Large Middle Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Tillia Kari. Inner Courtyard (Northern Side). View of the Large Middle Niche

This photograph of the north wall of the courtyard of the Tillia Kari Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Main Entrance to the Madrasah

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Nadir Divan-Begi. Main Entrance to the Madrasah

This photograph of the Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Located next to the Khodzha Akhrar shrine, this madrasah(religious school) has elements that possibly date from a mosque established by the sage in the 15th century. The ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Shaybani Khan and Ruins of the Tomb of the Kuchkunji Khans. View of the Inner Courtyard and Crypt of Shaybani Khan

Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Shaybani Khan and Ruins of the Tomb of the Kuchkunji Khans. View of the Inner Courtyard and Crypt of Shaybani Khan

This photograph of the Madrasah of Shaybani Khan in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architectural heritage. Muhammad Shaybani, subsequently known as Shaybani Khan (1451-1510), was the founder of the short-lived Shaybanid Uzbek dynasty. In 1500, and again in 1505, he captured Samarkand from ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Shir Dar Madrasah. Main Facade (Western). Base and Column Section

Antiquities of Samarkand. Shir Dar Madrasah. Main Facade (Western). Base and Column Section

This photograph of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of three major examples ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Shir Dar Madrasah. Main Facade (Western). Base of Corner Column on the Main Facade

Antiquities of Samarkand. Shir Dar Madrasah. Main Facade (Western). Base of Corner Column on the Main Facade

This photograph of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of three major examples ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Shir Dar Madrasah. Main Facade (Western). Corner to a Column Based at the Central Facade (Maloi) of the Niche

Antiquities of Samarkand. Shir Dar Madrasah. Main Facade (Western). Corner to a Column Based at the Central Facade (Maloi) of the Niche

This photograph of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of three major ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

Antiquities of Samarkand. Shir Dar Madrasah. Inscriptions along the Walls and above the Foundation

Antiquities of Samarkand. Shir Dar Madrasah. Inscriptions along the Walls and above the Foundation

This photograph of the Shir Dar Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed of three major examples ...

Contributed by Library of Congress

 

Arabic and Islamic Science and Its Influence on the Western Scientific Tradition

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Themes are intended to provide in-depth coverage of certain topics, using selected items in the World Digital Library. These sections provide historical and cultural context and explain the connections between books, manuscripts, maps, and other documents that may be from different places and time periods but that all relate to a single topic. Themes are intended for use in schools and by the general public. Arabic and Islamic Science and Its Influence on the Western Scientific Tradition illuminates the achievements of the Arab and Islamic world in four areas -- mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and technology – and discusses the influence on the Western scientific tradition of Arabic and Islamic achievements in these fields. The narrative of this section was written by Dr. George Saliba, Professor of Arabic and Islamic Science, Department of Middle East and Asian Languages and Cultures, Columbia University, New York, while he was a Distinguished Visiting Scholar at the Kluge Center, Library of Congress. The items used to illustrate the narrative were contributed by WDL partners and were chosen by the WDL staff at the Library of Congress. Development of this section was made possible by the financial support of the Qatar National Library.

ETİKETLER : dünya dijital kütüphanesi digital library oxford world library 4wdl
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